Urethral swab female

The cotton swab test is used to assess urethral mobility in women. To perform the test, place the patient in a dorsal lithotomy position. Make sure the examining table is parallel to the floor... The urethra is a tube that drains urine from the bladder. This is the preferred culture site in men, or in women with no cervix. Specimens should be taken no earlier than two hours after the patient has last voided his or her bladder. Gently insert the swab into the urethra (1-2 cm for women, 2-4 cm for men The urethral swab is most commonly used to detect sexually transmitted diseases and other infections. It is most often performed on men for these purposes, as females would normally have a vaginal swab Asymptomatic men: urethral swab and urine. Symptomatic women: endocervical swab, clinician-collected vaginal swab, patient-collected vaginal swab in a clinical setting, gynecologic specimens collected in PreservCyt solution and urine. Symptomatic men: urethral swab and urine. 24 hours at 2°-30°C (urine specimen in primary cup The Aptima Unisex Swab Specimen Collection Kit for Female Endocervical and Male Urethral Swab Specimens is for use with Aptima assays. The Aptima Unisex Swab Specimen Collection Kit is intended to be used for the collection of female endocervical or male urethral swab specimens

Urethral Swab of Specimen Collection Series with Dr. Michael Miller (Viewer Discretion Advised) from COPAN Diagnostics Plus . 6 years ago. Welcome to this most informative series of demonstrations of specimen collection for diagnostic microbiology. Receiving appropriately collected specimen in the laboratory is absolutely essential Urethritis in Women Urethritis occurs when the urethra is red and swollen (inflamed). The urethra is the tube that passes urine from the bladder to outside the body. The urethra can get swollen and cause burning pain when you urinate A cotton swab is inserted into the vagina. Cystoscopy to allow the healthcare provider to look for problems in the urinary tract. The test uses a thin, flexible telescope called a cystoscope with a light and camera attached. The scope is inserted into the urethra

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Swab (cervix, urethral, rectal, conjunctiva, vaginal): Do NOT use wooden or cotton swabs. Use sterile swab to remove mucous or exudate and discard. Use fresh sterile dacron swabs to obtain columnar/ cuboidal epithelial cells. Use VCM or equivalent Objectives: Our objective was to evaluate and compare the accuracy of urethral swabs and urine specimens in the detection of Mycoplasmas in women with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Methods: During a urogynecological work-up, including cystometry, we obtained first-void urine, urethral and vaginal swabs in 207 consecutive women at our urogynecological division First, your healthcare provider or nurse will clean the tip of your penis with a sterile swab, where the urethra is located. Then, they'll insert a sterile cotton swab about three-quarters of an.. The female urethral meatus appears as an anterior-posterior slit located anterior to the vaginal opening and about 2.5 cm posterior to the glans clitoris. If the meatus recedes superiorly into the vagina, as can happen in older women, it can often be palpated in the midline as a soft mound surrounded by a firm ring of periurethral tissue

What is the cotton swab test for urinary incontinence

  1. The health care provider uses sterile cotton or gauze to clean the opening of the urethra at the tip of the penis. To collect the sample, a cotton swab is then gently inserted about three-fourths inch (2 centimeters) into the urethra and turned. To get a good sample, the test should be done at least 2 hours after urinating
  2. ora, known as the vestibule
  3. Female urethral discharge is usually the first sign of an infection known as urethritis. The causes of white particles in urine, or mucus in urine, is known as gonococcal urethritis, which can also cause pain and burning in the urethra. Read below for more related symptoms, causes, and treatment options. What to do for female urethral discharg
  4. Male urethral swab: The patient should not have urinated for at least one hour prior to specimen collection. Insert the specimen collection swab (blue-shaft swab in the package with the green printing) 2 to 4 cm into the urethra. Gently rotate the swab clockwise for two to three seconds in the urethra to ensure adequate sampling
  5. Sample Vaginal swab self-collected Male urine Male urine Types in a clinical setting Male urethral swabs Female urine Endlocervical swabs Vaginal swabs, clinician I collected and self-collected 510(k) Prernarket Notification 510(k) Summary Report Page
  6. al and pelvic exams to check for urethral discharge, and tenderness of the lower abdomen or urethra
  7. In women, a vaginal and/or cervical swab for STDs is usually done and a urethral swab for men. There are also urine tests for STDs that may be recommended along with—or as an alternative to—the swabs noted. Screening guidelines for STDs include tests for the major STDs such as gonorrhea and chlamydia
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How to Swab for Gonorrhea and Chlamydi

Objective: The objective of this study was to compare urogenital swab specimens and first void urine (FVU) specimens from male and female patients at a sexually transmitted disease clinic for the detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis infections using in-house, inhibitor-controlled polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Study design: Urethral swabs and FVU were collected from. Hold swab in your hand, placing your thumb and forefinger in the middle of the swab shaft covering the score line (black line). Do not hold swab shaft below the score line (black line). Carefully insert the swab into your vagina about 2 inches (5 cm) and gently rotate the swab for 10 to 30 seconds A woman's urethra is typically one and a half inches long. That makes it easier for bacteria to enter the urethra. According to Antimicrobe, urethritis occurs in approximately 4 million Americans..

What Is a Urethral Swab? (with pictures) - wiseGEE

  1. male urethral swab specimen collection. 3. Remove the sterile swab from the wrapper, taking care not to touch swab tip or lay it down on any surface. 4. Insert the white tip of the specimen collection swab 3/4 to 1 1/2 inches (2 to 4 cm) into the uretha. 5. Gently rotate the swab for 2 to 3 seconds to ensure adequate sampling. 6
  2. Endocervical swabs from women and urethral swabs from men can be used to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae by using nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). NAATs do not require viable organisms, they are substantially more sensitive than previous tests, and the same specimen can be used to test for both organisms, but.
  3. This video is intended for nurses, lab technicians and other clinical staff, and provides simple step-by-step instructions for using Copan's ESwab™ for ureth..
  4. Urethral and endocervical sampling for chlamydia were performed routinely on all sexually active female patients aged 16 and over within the GUM Department at Macclesfield District General Hospital from October 2005 to November 2006
  5. Insert swab approximately 2 cm to 4 cm (.75 to 1.5) into the urethral lumen. Puritan® 25-801 A 50 STEP 2 Gently rotate the swab in one direction for 2 to 3 seconds to ensure adequate sample absorption. Carefully withdraw the swab
  6. rectal, and male urethral swab specimens, clinician-collected gynecological specimens collected in the PreservCyt® Solution, patient-collected vaginal swab specimens,1 and female and male urine specimens. 1Patient-collected vaginal swab specimens are an option for screening women when a pelvic exam is not otherwise indicated
  7. Symptomatic women: endocervical swab, clinician-collected vaginal swab, patient-collected vaginal swab in a clinical setting, and urine. Symptomatic men: urethral swab and urine. 14 days at 2°-30°C. 90 days at -10°C or lower. Thaw frozen specimens at 2°-30°C. Specimens must not undergo more than four freeze/ thaw cycles

Recommendations for the Laboratory-Based Detection of

There is little need for urethral swab specimens, and in some studies, these samples are less sensitive than urine. Urethral swab specimens and male urine were equivalent in specificity.4 Specimen types recommended by the CDC for CT/NG testing4 For women: Vaginal swab is the preferred specimen type for women when a NAAT is used for testing urethral swab specimens, clinician-collected gynecological specimens collected in the PreservCyt Solution, patient-collected vaginal swab specimens,1 and female and male urine specimens. 1Patient-collected vaginal swab specimens are an option for screening women when a pelvic exam is not otherwise indicated. The vaginal and multitest swab This method has been tested using endocervical and male urethral swab specimens, vaginal swab specimens, PreservCyt liquid Pap specimens, rectal and oropharyngeal swabs, female and male urine specimens only. Performance with other specimens has not been assessed. Specimens other than those collected with the following specime

Urethral swab is usually taken from the urethra for diagnosing urethritis. Urethritis refers to irritation or inflammation of the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside through the penis). The usual symptoms in men are painful urination or discharge from the urethra, and the opening of the urethra may be irritated For men, urethral swabs can be collected. For women, samples can be collected using vaginal or cervical swabs. Sample collection happens during a pelvic exam, or a woman can do it herself (self-collection). In a pelvic exam, you lie on your back on an exam table, knees bent and your feet in supports called stirrups.. Female Endocervical Swab specimen collection: 1. CLEAN: Using one of the swabs provided, remove excess mucus from the cervical os and surrounding mucosa. Discard this swab after use. NOTE: Cleaning excess mucus from the cervical os is required to assure an adequate sample is obtained for processing. A large-tipped cleaning swab, such as Puritan 25-808 1PR (no

This toolkit contains these handy infographics: Male Infographic: Collection of Male Urethral Swab Specimens. Female Infographic: Self-Sampling Vaginal Collection Procedure. Great tools for both patients and medical professionals, these resources can help minimize patient discomfort and ensure accurate test results Male urethral swab: The patient should not have urinated for at least one hour prior to specimen collection. Insert the specimen collection swab (blue-shaft swab in the package with the green printing) 2-4 cm into the urethra. Gently rotate the swab clockwise for 2 to 3 seconds in the urethra to ensure adequate sampling. Withdraw the swab. Cyst of the urethra (paraurethral cysts) in women is a disease of the genitourinary system, which is a saccular cavity filled with secretory fluid. Cyst of the urethra is localized mainly near the mouth of the urinary tract. Rarely the lesion focus can be placed on the side or rear wall of the channel. Statistic

Urethral Swab of Specimen Collection Series with Dr

Finally, 95 women (68%, 95% CI 60-76%) preferred the vaginal approach, and 45 women (32%, 95% CI 24-40%) had no preference. None preferred the urethral Q-tip test. DISCUSSION. The vaginal cotton-tipped swab test and the standard urethral Q-tip test were equivalent in measuring urethral mobility using an a priori ±10° equivalence margin Swab or urethral smear is quick and accurate if the sample is adequate. Culture the material got by swab or brush from the endocervical area in female and urethral swab in the male. CDC recommends NAAT (nucleic acid amplification test) is also a rapid test. For NAAT the specimen can be taken from endocervical, vaginal, and urethral swabs The objective of this study is to compare detection of sexually transmitted infections in pregnant women by collecting samples using both the Hologic Aptima Vaginal Swab and the Unisex Specimen Collection Kit for Endocervical and Male Urethral Swab Calcium alginate or rayon swab preferred. Container or Transport Device: Sterile tube, culturette, or swab with transport media. For Trichomonas, Chlamydia and GC DNA testing; Male urethral swab in APTIMA Unisex Swab Specimen Collection kit. Place blue swab in Swab Specimen Transport Tube, break shaft off at scoreline then recap tube In women, cervical swabs are needed to maintain a high sensitivity, but the urethral swab specimen, which by many women is considered painful, could be substituted with an FVU specimen. It appears to be essential for female FVUs, however, that they are subjected to a DNA extraction procedure before freezing to avoid loss of sensitivity

Urethritis in Wome

Remove the swab from the packaging and insert the swab 2-4 cm into the urethra and rotate for 3-5 seconds. Withdraw the swab. Continue with #4 under the Female Endocervical Swab section. FEMALE ENDOCERVICAL SWABS- Use the Female (pink) Endocervical Specimen Collection Kit for the BD ProbeTec™ CT/GC Q. x Amplified DNA Assays. (can be used for. For the commonly used polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, there is evidence that testing of female and male urine is equivalent to cervical and urethral swabs, respectively, in terms of sensitivity and specificity [9-11]. Vaginal swabs are not validated for use by the manufacturers of the two most commonly used NAATs in Norway

Urethritis in Women Saint Luke's Health Syste

Specimen-handling, Infectious Diseases, Virology : Virolog

  1. (Cervical/Urethral swab) Package Insert REF WGON-C71 English A rapid test for the qualitative detection of Gonorrhea antigen in female cervical swab and male urethral swab specimens. For professional in vitro diagnostic use only. 【INTENDED USE】 The Gonorrhea Rapid Test Cassette (Cervical/Urethral swab) is a rapid chromatographi
  2. The bladder empties through the urethra and out of the body (called voiding). The female urethra is much shorter than the male's. In males, urine must travel a longer distance from the bladder through the penis. In males, the first 1 to 2 of the urethra that urine passes through is called the posterior urethra. The posterior urethra includes
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  4. urethral swabs. This test is suitable for men with or without symptoms but it is not recommended for first-line testing in women due to reduced sensitivity.3 In women the sensitivity of a self-taken lower vaginal PCR Chlamydia swab is comparable to a clinician obtained endocervical swab4 and is generally preferre
  5. Amies medium is the most efficient medium for transporting urethral, cervical and vaginal swabs. Specimens should be transported in a cool box. COLLECTION OF URETHRAL DISCHARGE FROM MALE PATIENTS. Cleanse around the urethral opening using a swab moistened with sterile physiological saline. Gently massage the urethra from above downwards
  6. Sexually-Transmitted Infections (STIs) Male Urethritis Panel - Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra and is often due to sexually transmitted infections. It may be caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis and/or Mycoplasma genitalium. The symptoms are a burning sensation while urinating, itching or burning near the opening of the penis, presence of.
  7. g increasingly available. These days, several STDs can be detected using urine testing. Urine chlamydia tests and gonorrhea tests are a lot more pleasant than urethral or cervical swabs and are quickly beco

Accuracy of urethral swab and urine analysis for the

  1. ation can also be present in persons without symptoms
  2. A cotton swab angle greater than 30° denotes urethral hypermobility. Figure 1 shows that the cotton swab at rest is zero with respect to the floor. Figure 2 shows that the cotton swab at stress.
  3. urethral swab: Etymology: Gk, ourethra + D, zwabber an absorbent pad on a slender rod used to treat lesions or to remove secretions
  4. ation. A sample of the discharge, if present, is collected by inserting a soft-tipped swab into the end of the urethra. The urethral swab is then sent to a laboratory for analysis so that the infecting organism can be identified. Treatment of.
  5. Dr. Jesse Mills answered. 20 years experience Urology. 23 hours: The swab pain should be gone. If the swab is positive for urethritis, the pain will last a few days after you start antibiotics. Send thanks to the doctor. A 24-year-old male asked
  6. For urethral specimens, patients should not urinate within 1 hour prior to specimen collection. Insert the blue shaft swab 2 to 4 cm into the urethra. Gently rotate swab clockwise for 2 to 3 seconds and withdraw carefully. For endocervical specimens, remove excess mucus using cleaning swab and then insert blue shaft swab into the endocervical.
  7. ed chlamydial organism load in matched specimens from different anatomic sites and exa

Urethral Discharge Test: Purpose, Procedure & Result

We define urethral swab as a medical procedure that consists of inserting a small cotton swab into the urethra. The correct procedure calls for insertion of the swab into the urethra to a maximum depth of 2-3 cm (0.8-1.2 inches) to collect a specimen and verify the presence of infection. 1 Female endocervical, male urethral, rectal and pharyngeal swabs. Not applicable. PHO Chlamydia trachomatis & Neisseria gonorrhoeae Hologic® Aptima® Unisex Swab Collection Kit . Kit order # 300210. Chlamydia trachomatis/ Neisseria gonorrhoeae (CT/GC) NAAT. or. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) NAA A coamplification PCR test for the direct detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in urethral and endocervical swabs and urine samples from men and women was compared to standard culture techniques. Processed specimens were amplified in single reaction tubes containing primers for both organisms, and PCR products were detected by a colorimetric microwell plate.

The Gen-Probe AMPLIFIED Chlamydia Trachomatis Assay (AMP CT) uses transcription-mediated amplification and hybridization protection assay procedures to qualitatively detect Chlamydia trachomatisrRNA in urine, endocervical swab, and urethral specimens. The performance of the AMP CT was compared to that of cell culture for endocervical swab and urine specimens from women and urethral and urine. The men tested from the urethral swab turned out to be HPV positive in a percent of 40.5%, and from them 40% were infected with oncogenic HPV genotypes. In this study the urethral swab was used to detect HPV DNA even in asymptomatic HPV carriers and by collecting urethral swab we were able to diagnose HPV infection Disposable Female Urethral Swab Vaginal Swab Cervical Nylon Flocked Swab . 1.Why Cells Specimen Collection Flocked Swab? Flocked Swabs are ideal for collecting large amount of cells and rapid slution of the specimens instantly release the cells into the cells into the transport medium Aptima Unisex Swab Specimen Collection Kit for Female Endocervical and Male Urethral Swab Specimens is for for the collection of female endocervical or male urethral swab specimens. Each kit contains: one swab for endocervical or male urethral swab specimens + one female cleaning swab + tube containing Aptima swab transport medium (2.9 mL

How To Do Urethral Catheterization in a Female

TABLE 1 Performance characteristics of cobas 4800 system for clinician-collected urethral swabs and first-void urine samples First-void urine (n = 100) Clinician-collected urethral swab (n = 100) Statistical data 39.3% than 11.1% of women during 2013-2017, while rates of NG among gay, bisexual, and other (men who have sex with men) MS Urethral swab instructions: Patient should not have passed urine for at least 1 hour. For males, if discharge is not apparent, attempt to 'milk it' out of the penis. Pass the swab gently through the urethral meatus and roll around. Put the swab in the transport medium

Swabs. Many physicians use urethral, cervical, or vaginal swabs for STD testing. In females, they may take cervical and vaginal swabs using a cotton applicator during a pelvic examination. In both males and females, they insert a cotton applicator into the urethra to take urethral swabs. HPV testing and Pap smear Female Dog Urinary Catheterization 3 of 6 8. The goal with speculum placement is to advance it beyond the level of the urethral orifice and urethral papilla and then visualize these structures while slowly withdrawing the speculum. Once the speculum has been advanced into the pelvic canal, remove the stylet/obturator (if one i An itchy urethra in females is a symptom from an inflamed urethra. This condition is usually caused by urethritis or a yeast infection. Women who have an irritated urethra may also be experiencing burning when peeing, or itching around the vaginal area. Read below for more information on what causes female urethral itchiness and treatment options For older women, the urethra and bladder change after menopause due to a drop in estrogen (female sex hormone). Their tissues are more fragile, becoming thinner and drier. Hi i am a 45 year old woman with a discharge coming from my uretha, ive had all the swabs and tests to find no infection or anything wrong. 2 doctors now think the. Hi, I'm 35 & have had constant urethra pain for 2 years now - after my hysterectomy. The pain is like a severe bladder infection & is the whole urethra tube - so when I have intercourse it is even more painful. When I had my hysto - I had to come home with a catheter & I had alot of problems with it , pain & bleeding

A urethral swab is an alternative. This is collected by inserting a swab about 2-4 cm into the urethra and rotating once before removal. Extra-genital samples. Rectal swabs in symptomatic men and women can be taken 'blind' by the person or a clinician. All people with proctitis should have rectal swabs taken to test for lymphogranuloma. Herpes simplex PCR viral swab; Female genital tract samples (HVS, endocervical, vulval) Sample requirements. Penile samples: Standard charcoal transport swab. Urethral samples: Plain wire swab. Place swab into transport medium. Wire swabs must be returned in a tube of charcoal transport medium. Fastidious organisms will nor survive on dry swabs Assessment of self taken swabs versus clinician taken swab cultures for diagnosing gonorrhea in women: single centre, diagnostic accuracy study. BMJ . 2012;345:e8107 M genitalium and C trachomatis were detected by polymerase chain reaction from urethral and endocervical swab specimens in a cross sectional study among 445 female and 501 male STD clinic attendees Urethral syndrome may cause: Pain and/or burning while urinating. Difficulty urinating (especially after intercourse) Increase in urge or frequency of urination. Blood in the urine. Swelling and/or tenderness in the groin. Pain during sex. In men, urethral syndrome may specifically cause: Discharge from the penis

Insert the specimen collection swab (blue-shaft swab in package with green print) provided in the APTIMA® Unisex Swab Collection Kit 2-4 cm into urethra.; Once inserted, rotate swab gently at least one full rotation using sufficient pressure to ensure swab comes into contact with all urethral surfaces The APTIMA Unisex Swab Specimen Collection Kit for Female Endocervical and Male Urethral Swab Specimens is for use with APTIMA assays. The APTIMA Unisex Swab Specimen Collection Kit is intended to be used for the collection of female endocervical or male urethral swab specimens

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The swabs and the specimen transport tubes contained in the APTIMA Unisex Swab Specimen Collection Kit for Endocervical, Urethral Swab Specimens can be used to collect patient cervical, urethral, rectal, and pharyngeal swab specimens. A unisex swab is used for both male and female specimens A urethral swab and a rectal swab were collected from each patient during SARS-CoV-2 infection. SARS-CoV-2 was identified by rRT-PCR. For patients who presented with a urethral swab and/or a rectal swab positive at the time of diagnosis, the swab was performed again at the time of the patient's virological recovery Urethral swab smear Urethral polymorphs and Gram-negative intracellular diplococci are indicative of gonorrhoea May also assist with the diagnosis of NGU: a raised urethral polymorph count will be present in the majority but not in about 30% of cases of urethritis where chlamydia and M. genitalium are detected Urethral sounding is a popular kink that sounds painful, but many folks are into it. It involves inserting a metal rod into the urethra—aka the pee hole Urethral syndrome symptoms. Patients diagnosed with urethral syndrome are typically female and aged 13-70 years. The patient reports suprapubic discomfort, dysuria, and urinary frequency. The history is important, and the diagnosis of urethral syndrome is one of exclusion

Urethral discharge culture: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedi

Sounds are metal instruments that are used to dilate tightly strictured urethra. All of BD's sounds (with the exception of the Walther Dilator) have a flattened distal end, which allows the physician to know which direction the curve is going. Sounds are available in a variety of sizes and tip configurations to meet the various requirements The urethral approach had a higher discomfort level (P<.001). The majority preferred the vaginal test (68% preferred vaginal, 32% no preference). CONCLUSION: The vaginal swab test is equivalent to the standard Q-tip test in measuring urethral mobility with less discomfort and is preferred by patients Gonorrhea, colloquially known as the clap, is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Infection may involve the genitals, mouth, or rectum. Infected men may experience pain or burning with urination, discharge from the penis, or testicular pain. Infected women may experience burning with urination, vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding between.

The Urethra - Male - Female - Anatomical Course

Males: proper culture is obtained by inserting a small, non‐cotton swab 2 to 3 cm into the urethra and plating the specimen immediately onto appropriate culture media. Females: proper culture is obtained by first wiping the exocervix and then placing a non‐cotton swab into the cervical os and rotating the swab several times; the specimen is. The type of tests required to screen individuals for STI depends on the sexual history and risk behviour of the individual. The risk of a patient having a particular STI depends on the type of sexual behaviour that has occurred (such as unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse) and the likelihood of their partner or partners having an STI. The latter is increased if for example the partner is. Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the bladder to be expelled from the body. It is commonly triggered by infection, but there are other causes as well

Urethral Discharge in Females 8 Causes for Urethritis in

male urethral swab specimens; and patient-collected female and male women when a pelvic exam is not otherwise indicated. The vaginal swab specimen collection kit is not for home use. Summary. (Female) X X First-Catch Urine (Male) X Aptima Multitest Swab ARUP Supply #55224/#55229 Vaginal Swab X X Throat Swab X Rectal Swab X Aptima Unisex Swab of urethral swabs, urine, and semen is one diagnostic option. Wet preparation lacks sensitivity with these specimens. Table 4: ARUP Validated Options for Patients Younger Than 14. urethral glands of female: [TA] numerous mucous glands in the wall of the female urethra. Synonym(s): glandulae urethrales femininae [TA], glands of the female urethra , Guérin glands , paraurethral glands , Skene gland

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Doctors can usually make a diagnosis of urethritis based on the symptoms and examination. A sample of the discharge, if present, is collected by inserting a soft-tipped swab into the end of the urethra. The urethral swab is then sent to a laboratory for analysis so that the infecting organism can be identified A urethral swab from male patients, and a cervical swab together with a urethral swab from female patients, were collected for culture and PCR. Swabs (for PCR and culture) were kept in culture transport media, and the same swabs were used for PCR and culture. In order to avoid bias for one specimen type, half of the patients collected a urine. In urethral catheterisation, a flexible tube is inserted into the bladder via the urethra. Urine can then drain freely from the bladder for collection. There are various indications for urethral catheterisation, such as the treatment of acute urinary retention, preoperative bladder emptying prior to urological or pelvic surgery, and the.