Percutaneous drainage pancreatitis

Hochwertige Produkte für deine Renovierungsvorhaben jetzt auf toom.de entdecken. Drainage online bei toom Baumarkt bestellen. Alles für deinen Heimwerkerbedarf Niedrige Preise, Riesen-Auswahl. Kostenlose Lieferung möglic Background: The role of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in patients with (infected) necrotizing pancreatitis was evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed. Inclusion criteria were: consecutive cohort of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis undergoing PCD as primary treatment for peripancreatic collections; indication for PCD either (suspected) infected necrosis or. Percutaneous drainage results in higher mortality and morbidity rates and a longer hospital stay than surgical treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts. The clinical benefit of percutaneous drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts in unselected patients has not been realized, and the role of this treatment should be established in a clinical trial

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Percutaneous catheter drainage is a safe and effective technique to treat acute infectious necrotizing pancreatitis. Keywords: pancreatic necrosis, pancreatitis, percutaneous catheter drainage Acute pancreatitis (AP) presents with a wide range of clinical findings, clinical severity, and morphologic manifestations Percutaneous drainage reduced intra-abdominal hypertension; however, PL reduced the incidence of deep venous thrombosis and pancreatic encephalopathy and was associated with a reduced need for intervention

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At our institution, the indications for surgical treatment of patients with acute necrotizing pancreatitis who have already undergone percutaneous catheter drainage include persistent systemic or local manifestations of infected pancreatic necrosis, deterioration of clinical condition, persistent pain, and inability to tolerate oral intake after the systemic inflammatory response syndrome has resolved pancreatitis are due to septic complications 20%, and up to pancreaticoutcomes. Freenyisinet al. developed a technique infected of percutaneous drainage only drainednecrosis passivelynecrosectomy describedpercutaneous by combinedadding aggressivecatheters percutaneous irrigationnecrosectomy,peripancreaticbaskets, continuous fragmentationof(28 retroperitonealbronchoscopic visualization of the cavity to successfull Percutaneous drainage of pseudocysts is associated with success rates of 80%-90%. Pancreatic abscess drainage has quoted success rates varying between 32% (infected necrosis) and 90% (pancreatic abscess). Use of large or multiple catheters is often required for complete drainage

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Percutaneous catheter drainage is a safe and effective technique for treating infected acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Appropriate selection of patients should be performed to maximize the benefit of percutaneous procedures In group A, 11 patients required additional treatment (mostly percutaneous drainage, n = 8), whereas in group B three patients required surgical intervention (11/20 vs. 3/20, P = 0.02). The authors concluded that prolonged catheter drainage is more effective for management of recurrent sterile fluid collections in acute pancreatitis than is. Interstitial pancreatitis is a mild disease while necrotizing pancreatitis with pancreatic and/or peripancreatic necrosis generally runs a more severe course. In patients with severe pancreatitis, local inflammatory process escalates to systemic level In the current meta-analysis, we focus on the exploration of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in terms of its overall safety as well as efficacy in the treatment of infected pancreatitis necrosis based on qualified studies Time from onset of acute pancreatitis to PCD was shorter in the present series (median, 23 d vs 30 d). The total number of procedures (PCD and subsequent fluoroscopic drain studies) per patient was greater in the present series (mean, 14 vs 2)

Systematic review of percutaneous catheter drainage as

Percutaneous drainage was an effective therapy for this defined group of patients with pancreatic abscesses. Factors leading to the relatively high success rate described in this study likely included selection of patients; catheters of adequate size, number, and location; careful follow-up with app drainage from percutaneous pancreatic catheters and to identify factors related to complications and re-admission. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The authors identified 15 patients with necrotizing pancreatitis who were discharged with drains after computed tomographic (CT)-guided catheter drainage at their institution from 2000 to 2006. A Use of percutaneous drainage of PFCs as a component of step-up approach for management of necrotizing pancreatitis was established by the PANTER Trial [25 ] Percutaneous drainage of 6 pancreatic abscesses allowed desperately ill patients to improve enough to undergo elective surgery, and obviated surgery in 3 patients. The technique was performed without complications in all cases. Percutaneous drainage should find a significant place in the management of patients with complications of pancreatitis

In patients with necrotizing pancreatitis, a less invasive step-up approach (percutaneous drainage followed, if necessary, by minimally invasive retroperitoneal necrosectomy) was associated with fe.. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) has a crucial role in treatment of proximal biliary cancer (PBC). We assessed the incidence, risk factors, and impact of acute pancreatitis (AP) post-PTBD Percutaneous drainage is an effective front-line treatment for most pancreatic pseudocysts; 84, 85 cure is likely if fluid collections are drained adequately and if sufficient time is allowed for closure of fistulas from the pancreatic duct

Ai X, Qian X, Pan W, et al. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous drainage may decrease the mortality of severe acute pancreatitis. J Gastroenterol . 2010. 45(1):77-85. [Medline] DOI: 10.5152/tjg.2018.17542 Corpus ID: 53664655. Role of percutaneous catheter drainage as primary treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis. @article{Mehta2019RoleOP, title={Role of percutaneous catheter drainage as primary treatment of necrotizing pancreatitis.}, author={Varun Mehta and R. Kumar and S. Parkash and S. Singla and Arshdeep Singh and Jagdeep Chaudhary and H. Bains}, journal={The. Additionally, percutaneous drainage is associated with high recurrence and reintervention[8,14] and may lead to external pancreatic fistulae. Therefore, it is not a preferred approach in the management of PPC now and should be reserved for patients with comorbidities who do not allow for definitive surgery or endoscopic treatment

Percutaneous Drainage of Pancreatic Pseudocysts Is

Effect of percutaneous catheter drainage on pancreatic injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis induced by sodium taurocholate. Pancreatology. 2015;15:71-7. Kotán R, Sápy P, Sipka S, et al. Serum C-reactive protein and white blood cell level as markers of successful percutaneous drainage of acute sterile peripancreatic fluid collection Percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) has become an established and often preferred alternative to surgical treatment in the management of pancreatic pseudocysts. However, the long term results of percutaneous drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts remain uncertain

Percutaneous drainage of intra-abdominal abscesses has been proven to be an alternative therapy to surgical procedures . To our knowledge, only four cases of percutaneous drainage of SP have been reported in the literature. Three patients had pancreatitis and were not surgical candidates and one patient had SP after cholangitis [4, 5, 7]. One. 1) Percutaneous or endoscopic drainage should be the first step. 2) This then is followed by step up to interventional necrosectomy if necessary (endoscopic or surgical). Working Group IAP/APA Acute Pancreatitis Guidelines. Pancreatology. 2013;13: e1-e15. (LOE Grade 1A, strong agreement Percutaneous drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts is associated with a higher failure rate than surgical treatment in unselected patients. Ann Surg, 229 (6) (1999), pp. 781-787. discussion 7-9. CrossRef Google Scholar. B. Ng, B. Murray, G. Hingston, J.A. Windsor Percutaneous biliary drainage is an important part of the care of many patients with malignant bile duct obstruction, particularly in patients with cholangiocarcinoma or pancreatic carcinoma. Careful pre-procedure assessment is important in determining which patients are likely to benefit from intervention and which are not IMAGE-GUIDED percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) has been shown to be effective therapy in carefully selected patients who have intra-abdominal abscesses. 1 Hemming et al 2 demonstrated that patients who underwent PCD of intra-abdominal abscesses had the same length of stay, morbidity rate, and mortality rate as matched patients stratified for site and severity who had open operative drainage

CT-Guided Percutaneous Catheter Drainage of Acute

Percutaneous Abscess Drainage. An abscess is an infected fluid collection within the body. Percutaneous abscess drainage uses imaging guidance to place a needle or catheter through the skin into the abscess to remove or drain the infected fluid. It offers faster recovery than open surgical drainage PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between the cause and severity of pancreatitis and the development of persistent pancreatocutaneous fistula (PPCF) after percutaneous drainage of pancreatic fluid collections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty patients (44 male, 16 female; age range, 10-74 years) were included in the study. The cause of pancreatitis was postoperative in 29 patients, alcoholism. Distinguishing between infected and sterile pancreatic necrosis is an ongoing clinical challenge. Sterile pancreatic necrosis is usually treated with aggressive medical management, whereas almost all patients with infected pancreatic necrosis require surgical debridement or percutaneous drainage if they are to survive

Percutaneous Drainage Versus Peritoneal Lavage for

  1. Pancreatic pseudocyst, the most common cystic lesion of the pancreas, is a localized collection of fluid rich in amylase within or adjacent to the pancreas and enclosed by a nonepithelialized wall.
  2. Search terms for the Cochrane Library were: 'pancreatitis AND (radiologic OR percutaneous OR drainage)', restricted to title, abstract, keywords and the English language. All titles and abstracts of studies identified by the initial search were screened to select those reporting on patients undergoing PCD of peripancreatic collections.
  3. CT-guided percutaneous catheter drainage of acute necrotizing pancreatitis: clinical experience and observations in patients with sterile and infected necrosis. AJR Am. J. Roentgenol. 192 , 110.

Pancreatic duct leaks or fistulas have traditionally been defined as internal or external. 3, 7 External leaks (pancreaticocutaneous fistulas) almost always follow percutaneous drainage of internal pancreatic fluid collections or pancreatic surgery. Less commonly, they are the consequence of penetrating abdominal trauma Objectives . Percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) is often the first invasive treatment step for infected necrotizing pancreatitis. A proactive PCD strategy, including frequent and early drain revising and upsizing, may reduce the need for surgical necrosectomy and could improve outcomes, but data are lacking Therefore, percutaneous step-up approach, i.e., percutaneous drainage (PCD) followed by minimally invasive surgical necrosectomy if required, is the currently accepted management strategy for infected pancreatic fluid collections in the first 4 weeks of illness and ETD has been traditionally recommended for collections beyond 4 weeks of illness Nealon WH, Walser E. Main pancreatic ductal anatomy can direct choice of modality for treating pancreatic pseudocysts (surgery versus percutaneous drainage). Ann Surg 2002; 235:751. Bradley EL 3rd, Howard TJ, van Sonnenberg E, Fotoohi M. Intervention in necrotizing pancreatitis: an evidence-based review of surgical and percutaneous alternatives

Discussion. As reported, percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) was a minimally invasive intervention for severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) ().Since PCD was first introduced by Freeny et al (), it has been used as a definitive treatment in approximately one-third of patients with infected necrosis.The 2012 Atlanta Amendment proposed a viable PCD for acute necrotic deposits of more than 5 cm in. Aim To perform a systematic review comparing the outcomes of endoscopic, percutaneous and surgical pancreatic pseudocyst drainage. Methods Comparative studies published between January 1980 and May 2014 were identified on PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane controlled trials register and assessed for suitability of inclusion In one report, 31 patients with pancreatic abscess were managed by percutaneous drainage. There was a 31% primary success rate. 56 Freeny et al also reported encouraging results 57: in 34 patients nearly half had successful treatment by catheter drainage and only nine required surgical drainage. This suggests that percutaneous wide bore. Percutaneous drainage, alone or in combination with other minimally invasive approaches, remains an important treatment modality for patients with symptomatic WON. Percutaneous drainage can provide a rapid and effective means for source control in patients with infected pancreatic necrosis who are too ill to undergo endoscopic transmural drainage A study of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis and infected necrotic tissue determined that a step-up approach to treatment (consisting of percutaneous drainage followed, if necessary, by minimally invasive retroperitoneal necrosectomy) yielded better results than standard care with open necrosectomy

CT Guided Percutaneous Drainage of Pancreatic Abscess INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic abscess is a late complication of acute pancreatitis occurring after four weeks of the initial attack. Pancreatic abscess is a collection of pus resulting from tissue necrosis, liquefaction and infection. It is estimated that approximately 3% o Percutaneous catheter drainage successfully drains the liquefied component of pancreatic necrosis while the solid component still remains undrained. This infected solid component of pancreatic necrosis is probably responsible for failure of percutaneous catheter drainage which demands surgical debridement

This approach is supported by recent studies.1, 6 Simple drainage of infected material is encouraged, by transgastric or percutaneous approach, when a liquid component predominates (pancreatic abscess or liquefied necrosis).10 Necrosectomy is required if solid or semisolid necrosis is present though it must be appreciated that this is more. Percutaneous necrosectomy has been introduced to remove this residual debris in a minimally invasive way. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed all patients with pancreatic necrosis who had percutaneous drainage (PCD) performed. Percutaneous pancreatic necrosectomy (PCPN) was done for those patients whose necrotic cavity failed to resolve Dr. Michael Gluck discusses his manuscript Endoscopic and Percutaneous Drainage of Symptomatic Walled-Off Pancreatic Necrosis Reduces Hospital Stay and Radi.. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) is a procedure to drain bile to relieve pressure in the bile ducts caused by a blockage.. The liver makes bile which helps in digestion of the fats.The bile passes through a series of small tubes (called ducts) that drain into a large duct, called the common bile duct Percutaneous drainage can successfully treat acute necrotizing pancreatitis in more than 50% of patients without need for surgical necrosectomy. The success rate with endoscopic therapy can reach 80% when used in conjunction with DEN

Surgicomania: Briefly about Pancreatic Pseudocyst

Percutaneous intervention in acute pancreatitis

Percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) has become an established and often preferred alternative to surgical treatment in the management of pancreatic pseudocysts. However, the long term results of percutaneous drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts remain uncertain. In an effort to determine the long term outcome of this therapy, 42 patients undergoing PCD of a pancreatic pseudocyst were analyzed. In other conditions, such as pancreatic fistula after pancreatic resection, early (percutaneous) catheter drainage has also proven to be safe and successful . Furthermore, an international survey among expert pancreatologists demonstrated equipoise between immediate and postponed catheter drainage of infected necrotizing pancreatitis [ 17 ]

of percutaneous drainage followed, if necessary, by minimally invasive retroperito - during the current episode of pancreatitis, previ-ous drainage or surgery for confirmed or sus Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage is suggested as the first approach in the management of symptomatic and complex walled-off pancreatic necrosis. Dual approach with percutaneous drainage could be the best choice when the necrosis is deep extended till the pelvic paracolic gutter; however, the available catheter could not be large enough to drain solid necrosis neither to perform. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is an effective method for the primary or palliative treatment of many biliary abnormalities demonstrated with cholangiography. Participation by the radiologist in patient follow-up is an integral part of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and will increase the effectiveness of the procedure

Percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy drainage in a dog with extrahepatic biliary obstruction secondary to pancreatitis Rachel A. Chmelovski, Jennifer L. Granick , Christopher P. Ober , Shamar J. Young , Christopher B. Thomso For instance, ~50% of patients undergoing percutaneous drainage will progress to more aggressive treatment. 2 In a retrospective analysis of 130 patients undergoing percutaneous drainage of pancreatic necrosis, male sex, multiorgan failure (OR 0.15, CI 0.04-0.62, P<0.01), increasing percentage of pancreatic necrosis, and heterogeneity of. Percutaneous transgastric drain with decreasing WON. Small remaining collections. Improving biliary ductal dilation. Similar spared pancreatic parenchyma in the uncinate process and tail. Improving inflammation of the stomach and duodenum. Mild reactive adenopathy Infected pancreatic necrosis, which occurs in about 40% of patients admitted for acute necrotizing pancreatitis, requires combined antibiotic therapy and local drainage. Since 2010, drainage by open surgical necrosectomy has been increasingly replaced by less invasive methods such as percutaneous radiological drainage, endoscopic necrosectomy, and laparoscopic surgery, which proved effective.

CT Guided Percutaneous Drainage in Necrotizing

Percutaneous Drainage Continuous drainage until output < 50 ml/day + amylase activity ↓ Failure rate 16% Recurrence rates 7% Complications Conversion into an infected pseudocyst (10%) Catheter-site cellulitis Damage to adjacent organs Pancreatico-cutaneous fistula GI hemorrhageGumaste et al: Pancreatic pseudocyst Background: Percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) has become popular as a minimally invasive technique in the treatment armamentarium of patients with necrotizing pancreatitis requiring intervention. It obviates surgery and its attendant morbidity in a considerable number of patients in this setting ADVICE 8: Percutaneous drainage of pancreatic necrosis should be considered in patients with infected or symptomatic necrotic collections in the early, acute period (<2 weeks), and in those with WON who are too ill to undergo endoscopic or surgical intervention. Percutaneous drainage should be strongly considered as an adjunct to endoscopic. INTRODUCTION: Primary endoscopic and percutaneous drainage for pancreatic necrotic collections is increasingly used. We aim to compare the relative effectiveness of both modalities in reducing the duration and severity of illness by measuring their effects on systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)

Infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is a serious local complication of acute pancreatitis, with high mortality. Minimally invasive therapy including percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) has become the preferred method for IPN instead of traditional open necrosectomy. However, the efficacy of double-catheter lavage in combination with percutaneous flexible endoscopic debridement after PCD. Nealon WH, Walser E: Main pancreatic ductal anatomy can direct choice of modality for treating pancreatic pseudocysts (surgery versus percutaneous drainage). Ann Surg 2002; 235: 751-8. MEDLIN necrotizing pancreatitis submitted to surgical necrosectomy or percutaneous drainage of necrotic secretions Bruno Cacopardo1*, Marilia Rita Pinzone1, Salvatore Berretta2, Rossella Fisichella2, Maria Di Vita2, Guido Zanghì2, Alessandro Cappellani2, Giuseppe Nunnari1, Antonio Zanghì The present study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in patients with obstructive jaundice and identify potential predictors of patient survival. Clinical data from 102 patients (66 males and 36 females; median age, 63.50 years; range, 29‑84 years) with a mean (± standard deviation) pre‑drainage serum bilirubin level of 285.4 (±136.7. Percutaneous drainage has become an acceptable treatment of pancreatic pseudocysts, having as high as a 90% cure rate reported in some series:. Contraindications to percutaneous catheter drainage include the presence of pancreatic necrosis or a solid non-drainable pancreatic mass, lack of safe access route, and active pseudocyst hernorrhaqe

Draining sterile fluid collections in acute pancreatitis

Endoscopic pancreatic necrosectomy refers to the endoscopic drainage and debridement of pancreatic necrosis. The procedure has been performed for close to three decades but has evolved over time due to the availability of newer and larger-sized stents that facilitate access to the necrotic cavity from the stomach or duodenum for drainage and direct endoscopy-guided debridement of dead tissue Minimally invasive procedures, including percutaneous drainage, endoscopic drainage, or minimally invasive surgery (that is, retroperitoneoscopy) for infected pancreatic necrosis may play a role as a temporary measure to bridge the critical early time after onset of acute pancreatitis to a later optimal time point for definite intervention

Management of pancreatic fluid collections in patients

BibTeX @MISC{Motoo_keywords:, author = {Peer Reviewer Yoshiharu Motoo}, title = {Key words: Acute necrotizing pancreatitis; Percutaneous drainage; Drainage size. Pancreatic pseudocysts in chronic pancreatitis. surgical or interventional drainage Fig. 2: Percutaneous drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst that developed during an attack of acute pancreatitis. Tab. I - RESULTS OF PERCUTANEOUS CATHETER DRAINAGE OF CHRONIC (AND ACUTE) PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYSTS resolution drainage time complications recurrence.

Percutaneous CT-guided catheter drainage as initial treatment of acute necrotizing pancreatitis is safe. Approximately 50% of patients are cured by catheter drainage alone. In addition, catheter drainage delays surgical debridement, allowing more elective surgery and improved surgical outcome Endoscopic and percutaneous drainage of PFC have been compared in the last 10 years. Overall, endoscopic and percutaneous drainage are similarly effective and complementary interventions for PFC [9, 16]. When direct pancreatic duct interventions are needed, endoscopy is the method of choice A national survey observed the overall success rate to be 68.3%, which, after secondary percutaneous drainage, improved to 73.0% [9]. In our study, the overall success rate of the percutaneous drainage procedure for all types and locations of intra-abdominal collections/abscess was 77.4 % Keywords: Percutaneous catheter drainage, severe acute pancreatitis, necrosis, infection, efficacy Introduction Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a common clinical acute critical disease. Its main manifes - tations include abdominal pain, abdominal dis-tention, fever, and nausea [1]. Late-stage SAP can induce severe complications such as pan

A meta-analysis and systematic review of percutaneous

The role of percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) in patients with (infected) necrotizing pancreatitis was evaluated. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed Background and Objectives: Infected pancreatic necrosis (IPN) in the early phase is treated with step up approach involving initial percutaneous catheter drainage (PCD) followed by necrosectomy. There is a paucity of data on a combined approach of initial PCD followed by endoscopic drainage and necrosectomy. A retrospectively study on safety and efficacy of initial PCD followed by.

Catheter Tract Seeding After Percutaneous Biliary Drainage for Pancreatic Cancer LUKE CUTHERELL, MD,' HAROLD J. WANEBO, MD,' AND CHARLES J. TEGTMEYER, MDt Percutaneous biliary drainage is frequently used to decompress obstruction of a malignant origin. The development of a tumor along the drainage tract is rare and has been reported only where. In earlier studies, sterile or infected walled-off pancreatic necrosis with transoral/transmural endoscopic drainage required percutaneous drainage in 40% of cases or operative intervention in 20%. [ 14 , 15 , 16 ] These days, primary drainage involving an open procedure should be avoided, if at all possible

Better Outcomes if Percutaneous Drainage Is Used Early and

Postoperative pancreatic fistula is a potential adverse event after pancreatic resection. Pancreatic duct drainage (endoscopic, percutaneous) is a therapeutic option.1-11 We describe a new approach via percutaneous endoscopy CHICAGO - Placement of a U-tube drain provides enhanced percutaneous drainage and minimizes catheter-related complications in patients with complicated or infected necrotizing pancreatitis, new research suggests. The U-tube method uses a large, 20-French Silastic tube with numerous large holes in the middle Percutaneous Biliary Drainage. Biliary duct obstruction is a serious problem, which may be related to benign or malignant causes. The mechanical obstruction of the biliary duct interrupts the flow of bile produced by the liver into the gut. Serious complications related to the obstruction may ensue, with changes in the liver function. The effect of endoscopic drainage was monitored every week, mainly using conventional ultrasonography. In the case of ineffective endoscopic drainage and spreading of necrosis outside the lesser omental sac, additional percutaneous drainage was performed. Percutaneous drainage was made under ultrasonographic or computed tomography guidance Dual modality drainage for symptomatic walled-off pancreatic necrosis reduces length of hospitalization, radiological procedures, and number of endoscopies compared to standard percutaneous drainage. J Gastrointest Surg. 2012; 16 : 248-25

Pancreatic pseudocyst

Percutaneous catheter drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst

Primary percutaneous drainage is being replaced by endoscopic drainage, which prevents EPF formation . Although surgical and endoscopic procedures are equally effective in draining non-resolving symptomatic pancreatic pseudocysts, endoscopy is a cost-effective option associated with a shorter hospital stay [ 7 ] Simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPK) is a treatment option for patients with end-stage renal disease due to type 1 diabetes mellitus. We report a patient with a refractory fistula due to leakage from the duodenal stump of the pancreas graft after an SPK with bladder drainage who was successfully treated with a percutaneous direct injection of N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) A national comparison of surgical versus percutaneous drainage of pancreatic pseudocysts: 1997-2001. J Gastrointest Surg. 2005 Jan. 9(1):15-20; discussion 20-1. . Nealon WH, Walser E. Surgical management of complications associated with percutaneous and/or endoscopic management of pseudocyst of the pancreas

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How is percutaneous drainage performed in the treatment of

Modified Puestow procedure for relapsing pancreatitis in aPancreatic duct drainage using EUS-guided rendezvous[Full text] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage