Neighborhood disadvantage, disorder and health

Niedrige Preise, Riesen-Auswahl. Kostenlose Lieferung möglic Neighborhood Disadvantage, Disorder, and Health - PubMed We examine the question of whether living in a disadvantaged neighborhood damages health, over and above the impact of personal socioeconomic characteristics

NEIGHBORHOOD DISADVANTAGE, DISORDER, AND HEALTH 259 them to physical and social disorder. ple who see little chance to succeed may be Disadvantage is a condition or circumstance less likely to stay in school and more likely t NEIGHBORHOOD DISADVANTAGE, DISORDER, AND HEALTH them to physical and social disorder. Disadvantage is a condition or circumstance unfavorable to success. To the extent that dis- advantaged individuals are concentrated in geographically defined areas, disadvantage becomes characteristic of their neighborhoods (Massey 1996) Neighborhood Disadvantage , Disorder , and Health Author ( s ) : of the U.S. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Bureau of the Census. 1992. Census of Population and Housing, 1990: Summary Tape File 3 on CD-ROM [MRDF]. Prepared and distributed by the Bureau of the Census. Washington, DC: The Census Bureau Neighborhood disadvantage is associated with depression in three ways: (1) neighborhood disadvantage increased depression directly, (2) neighborhood disadvantage increased depression by way of neighborhood disorder, and (3) neighborhood disadvantage decreased depression through enhanced social relationships

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The exogenous variable of interest is the neighborhood where disadvantaged persons live, which may expose them to chronic stressors in the form of crime, trouble, harassment, and other potentially distressing signs of disorder and decay. The mediator is the stress response that occurs in the body and brain suffer psychologically as a result of disorder in their neighborhoods. The stress of living in a disadvantaged neighborhood with high rates of poverty and mother-only households may take its toll in depression in feeling run-down, tired, sad and hopeless. I hypothesize that the impact of neighborhood disadvantage on adult mental health is.

Exposure to neighborhood physical disorder may lead to a greater predisposition to physiological and psychological chronic stress, owing to the potential influence of this exposure on the forming of social bonds and access to public spaces (Curtis et al. 2013; Cutrona et al. 2006) Childhood neighborhood disadvantage predicted both schizophrenia and bipolar diagnoses, regardless of childhood social behavior. Our results suggest that policy interventions aimed at improving neighborhood conditions may help to decrease the prevalence of psychosis-spectrum diagnoses in the future Although previous research has made significant contributions to our understanding of the health consequences of neighborhood disadvantage and neighborhood disorder (e.g., resident perceptions of structural dilapidation, pollution, noise, crime, public intoxication, and other incivilities), we have only begun to explore underlying mechanisms explaining these patterns Objectives: This research examines whether perceived neighborhood disorder influences the use of preventive healthcare services (i.e. influenza vaccine, pneumonia vaccine, cholesterol screening, colonoscopy, and dental care) by older adults and whether social ties buffer the potential adverse effects of perceived neighborhood disorder.Methods: Using data from the 2012 wave of the Health and. The association of an individual's neighborhood context with health and disease is distinct from—and sometimes greater than—the association of individual SES with health and disease. 17-21 Neighborhood-level disadvantage, comprising poverty, educational level, income level, employment, and infrastructure within a geographic region, is.

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Disorder, and Health - PubMe

  1. We assessed neighborhood-level social conditions, including social cohesion, violence, and disorder, with self-reported, validated scales. Results. Among African American women, each standard deviation increase in neighborhood disadvantage was associated with a 25% increased risk of CVD after covariate adjustment (hazard ratio = 1.25; 95%.
  2. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and disorder are theorized to contribute to psychological stress which activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may lead to physiologic dysfunction in multiple pathways, including cardiovascular inflammation and metabolic derangements,
  3. perceived neighborhood disorder and depressive symptoms ment have important implications for children's health and development (Evans, 2006). A dark, noisy, and clut- associated with neighborhood disadvantage than other types of child maltreatment (Drake & Pandey, 1996)
  4. health,Austin University of Texas, and psychological and physiological dis- Wed, 03 Oct 2007tress mediate 87 percent of the association 14:51:39 between disorder and poor health. RESULTS Neighborhood Disorder, Stress Response, and Neighborhood Disorder, Individual Health Disadvantage, and Health Neighborhood disorder is negatively associ.
  5. Building on earlier research (Jones-Webb et al. 1995, 1997), Jacobson et al. (2007a, b) showed that both individual- and neighborhood-level economic disadvantage predicted a lower alcohol treatment completion for Blacks. As well, Cunradi et al. (2000) identified residence in an impoverished neighborhood as a risk factor for male-to-female.
  6. health: depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder. Ross and Mirowsky (2001) in a multi-level analysis assessed the relationship between neighbor- hood disadvantage and self-reported health. Perceived neighborhood disorder was found to mediate the relationship between neighbor

We drew on published EWAS findings 25-27 on 3 phenotypes of public health importance that were previously associated with neighborhood disadvantage (obesity, inflammation, and smoking). We constructed DNA methylation-based algorithms to capture manifold methylation differences in a single polyepigenetic score for each phenotype Neighborhood disadvantage may be an environmental risk factor for brain development May 05, 2021 Neighborhood conditions associated with children's cognitive functio

Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with heightened risk for poor school readiness and health outcomes in early childhood, and the home environment is thought to be a primary mechanism by which neighborhood context impacts preschoolers. This study examined the effects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and neighborhood residential instability on the home physical. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Disorder, and Health, Catherine E. Ross and John Mirowsky - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. Journalof Health and Social Behavior2001, Vol42 (September):258-276 Weexamine the question of whether living in a disadvantaged neighborhood damages health, over and above the impact ofpersonal socioeconomic charac- teristics Consonant with this idea, recent neighborhood research has demonstrated that social support buffers the effects of neighborhood disorder or disadvantage on health and wellbeing [37,53]. Of the relationships considered in the stress-buffering literature, marriage has been determined to be one of the most important sources of social support neighborhood disadvantage on access to mental healthcare, and how those two factors relate to individual mental health outcomes (specifically major depressive disorder and generalized anxiety disorder) in Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Neighborhood disadvantage and access to mental healthcare in Rhode Island and Massachusetts Justin M. Ferenz This study evaluated the relationship of allostatic load with neighborhood disadvantage, individual socioeconomic determinants, and synergism between neighborhood and socioeconomic disadvantage, along with health behaviors and other factors as mediators in African American women

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Independent of individual or family-level characteristics, neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with early mortality and worse physical and mental health 1,2,3,4,5. Understanding. Although neighborhood characteristics have been linked to physical (Freedman et al., 2011) and emotional health , fewer studies have examined neighborhood effects on cognitive health, which is an important predictor of functional independence and quality of life among older adults (Stuck et al., 1999) 29 Joongbaeck K: Neighborhood disadvantage and mental health: the role of neighborhood disorder and social relationships. Social Science Research 39:260-271, 2010 Crossref, Google Scholar. 30 Krishan S, Bakeman R, Broussard B, et al Studies have established a link between contextual factors, such as neighborhood and community environments, and psychopathology. Although these factors have been shown to affect the expression of symptoms of depression and other disorders, little evidence exists of a link between contextual factors and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The current study tested the relationships among. Ross CE, Mirowsky J. Neighborhood disadvantage, disorder, and health. J Health Soc Behav. 2001; 42 (3):258-276. Schempf A, Strobino D, O'Campo P. Neighborhood effects on birthweight: an exploration of psychosocial and behavioral pathways in Baltimore, 1995--1996. Soc Sci Med. 2009; 68 (1):100-110. [PMC free article

Ross CE, Mirowsky J. Neighborhood disadvantage, disorder, and health. J Health Soc Behav. 2001; 42 (3):258-276. [Google Scholar] Schempf A, Strobino D, O'Campo P. Neighborhood effects on birthweight: an exploration of psychosocial and behavioral pathways in Baltimore, 1995--1996. Soc Sci Med. 2009; 68 (1):100-110 Firearm violence is a public health problem that disparately impacts areas of economic and social deprivation. Despite a growing literature on neighborhood characteristics and injury, few studies have examined the association between neighborhood disadvantage and fatal and nonfatal firearm assault using data on injury location. We conducted an ecological Bayesian spatial analysis examining. Disadvantaged neighborhood environments may have low access to healthcare, perpetuating health disparities. Previous research has reported on associations between neighborhood disadvantage (ND) and depressive symptomology but not depression diagnoses, which may indicate access to healthcare. This study tested how ND relates to depressive symptomology and diagnosis to assess for neighborhood. Indeed, perceived neighborhood disorder in childhood and adolescence significantly predicted delays in identification and receipt of mental health services for people with a diagnosis of psychosis . Other marginalized groups, encompassing those in poor rural areas, the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and intersex community. health: depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder. Ross and Mirowsky (2001) in a multi-level analysis assessed the relationship between neighbor- hood disadvantage and self-reported health. Perceived neighborhood disorder was found to mediate the relationship between neighbor

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Disorder, and Healt

  1. What are the advantages for providers who participate in a Health Neighborhood? Screen consumers for health, mental health, and substance use disorder issues with the knowledge that there is an array of providers to refer to depending on need
  2. al justice.
  3. • Ross CE, Mirowski J. Neighborhood disadvantage, disorder and health. J Health Soc Behav 2001;42;258-276 • Shanahan MJ, Hofer SM. Social context in gene-environment interactions: retrospect and prospect. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 2005;60;65-76 • Ware E, Schmitz L, Gard A, et al. 2018. HRS Polygenic Scores -Release 2: 2006-2012.

of neighborhood disadvantage on overall self-rated health Another limitation of the data is our measurement of (Ross & Mirowsky, 2001). obesity, which is based on self-reports of height and Although the bulk of prior research emphasizes objective weight. neighborhood, and state-level to the harmful effects of neighborhood disorder on health. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Disorder and Health Neighborhood disadvantage is a term used to describe socioeconomic position of a locality. Typically measured at the census tract level, neighborhood disadvantage is most frequently operationalized by developing an index of various indicators such as famil PurposeInconsistent evidence of a relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent mental health may be, in part, attributable to heterogeneity based on urban or rural residence. Using the largest nationally representative survey of US adolescent mental health available, we estimated the association between neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent emotional disorders and the. Past research has reported an association between neighborhood disadvantage and healthy aging, but most of these studies utilize self-report measures of health or physical functioning and do not properly account for neighborhood selection effects, creating concerns regarding inflated associations

Neighborhood disadvantage, after accounting for family socioeconomic status and perceptions of neighborhood safety, showed associations with multiple aspects of neurocognition and smaller total. Residential segregation can foster health inequality mechanisms by increasing stress related to neighborhood violence and disorder. We studied the association between neighborhood violence and disorder and inequalities in anxiety between two groups of perinatal Israeli women (Jewish, Palestinian-Arab) living in ethno-nationally segregated neighborhoods, and explored the influence of. Neighborhood Disadvantage on Chronic Illness Through Biological Aging. Prior research also has provided little guidance regarding the biopsychosocial mechanisms whereby neighborhood factors may become biologically embedded and thereby influence health (Causadias, Telzer, & Lee, Reference Causadias, Telzer and Lee 2017; Johnson & Acabchuk, Reference Johnson and Acabchuk 2018)

  1. Children and adolescents exposed to violence are at risk for poor long-term behavioral and mental health outcomes regardless of whether they are victims, direct witnesses, or hear about the crime. 9 For example, children exposed to violence may experience behavioral problems, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder. 10 Children.
  2. We recently published a study using our disorder measure with data from the New York City Neighborhood and Mental Health in the Elderly Study (NYCNAMES-II), a three-wave cohort study of about 3,500 adults aged 65-75 at baseline, to see whether disorder seems to be impeding physical activity among older New York City residents. Too few study.
  3. Neighborhood disadvantage is associated with education, health behaviors and mortality. Health improves with moving to less disadvantaged neighborhoods (Ludwig, Science 2012). Although studies have linked neighborhood disadvantage to diseases like diabetes and cancer, little is known about its effect on development of dementia
  4. Concentrated disadvantage had an indirect effect on the home learning environment through mothers' perceived neighborhood disorder and depressive symptoms. The effects of concentrated disadvantage on the home environment were buffered by mothers' neighborhood social embeddedness
  5. Research into the association between neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress and anxiety/depressive disorders has produced inconsistent results. Contribut-ing factors may include lack of generalizability and incomplete control for confounding and positivity violations due to neighborhood selection and segregation. The goal o

A study of individuals who were screened for an HIV prevention intervention found that perceptions of neighborhood characteristics predicted change in depressive symptoms 9 months later. 41 The Alameda County Study found that living in a high-poverty area was associated with worse health status and more symptoms of depression; however, this. Residing in neighborhoods characterized by objective measures of disadvantage has been associated with poorer health outcomes, above and beyond individual characteristics. This study tests a partial mediational model by which the association between neighborhood disadvantage (census-level poverty, undereducation, and unemployment), and the volume of weekly alcohol consumption, binge drinking. Neighborhood disorder, however, is associated with the risk of having a small network. Furthermore, the inclusion of an interaction term crossing neighborhood disorder and metropolitan residence is also significant in this model and its inclusion improves model fit (F (df = 1, 50) = 6.94; p < .05). This indicates that the relationship between. Dive into the research topics of 'Race, neighborhood disadvantage, and violence among persons with mental disorders: The importance of contextual measurement'. Together they form a unique fingerprint Low NSES and related measures of neighborhood disadvantage are consistently associated with worse sleep health among both children and adolescents. Children and adolescents living in disadvantaged neighborhoods have shorter nightly sleep durations and greater odds of inadequate sleep than do children and adolescents living in more advantaged.

[PDF] Neighborhood Disadvantage , Disorder , and Health

There was no evidence of effect modification among neighborhood characteristics. The findings suggest that neighborhood effects on cardiovascular health may be mediated through cardiovascular biomarker levels, and that socioeconomic disadvantage, disorder, and greenness may each be important features of neighborhoods Real and perceived disorder - objective social and physical conditions that indicate a breakdown of social control in the community • From this perspective, neighbourhood disadvantage is a primary stressor that leads to disorganization and disorder - secondary stressors • Measures of organization and disorder measured at the.

Neighborhood as a Social Context of the Stress ProcessMap of Syracuse, NY depicting gunshots investigated by the

neighborhood disadvantage and various individual-level outcomes (Sampson, Morenoff & Gannon-Rowley 2002; Sampson 2003). analyses to capture neighborhood effects on exposure to crime and disorder, stressful life events, and health. We conclude with a summary of our findings and their implications for affordable housing policy Ross, C. E. & Mirowsky, J. (2001) Neighborhood disadvantage, disorder, and health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 42(3), 258-276. Neighborhood conditions: Survey: Utilized with the Ross-Mirowsky neighborhood disorder scale to reveal conditions and activities perceived to signal the breakdown of social order This study examines whether and how select individual characteristics moderate the relationship between neighborhood disorder and a sense of personal control. Our findings show that neighborhood disorder is associated with a decreased sense of control. However, regression analyses including interaction terms of neighborhood disorder and some individual characteristics show that the negative. Neighborhood disadvantage is a modifiable, policy-actionable factor that may impact cognitive health independently of and through risk factors such as chronic stress and reduced access to educational opportunities, healthy food, and medical care. 5, 6 Because it drives various and synchronous risk mechanisms, neighborhood-level disadvantage is. Influence of neighborhood disadvantage on overall health. 1. Physical environment shared by residents. 2. Availability of health environments at home, work, and play. 3. Public/private services (education, street cleaning, hospitals, welfare) 4. Socio-cultural aspects of neighborhoods (public safety, values, religious factors) waving example

CECILIA MAGNUSSON | MD, PhD | Karolinska Institutet, Solna

Neighborhood disadvantage and mental health: The role of

Perceived neighborhood characteristics included safety, social cohesion, and satisfaction with one's neighborhood as a place to live. Objective neighborhood conditions included walkability, disorder, street lighting, and crime levels. Sleep duration, efficiency, and WASO were measured via 7 days of wrist-worn actigraphy th confirmed ASD born in 2003-2006; controls were 855 randomly sampled children born during the same time period and residents of the same geographic areas as cases. Air pollution was assessed by roadway proximity and particulate matter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) exposure during pregnancy and first year of life. To characterize neighborhood deprivation, an index was created based on eight census tract. The Detroit Neighborhood Health Study (DNHS), a 5-year study funded by the National Institutes of Health, was conducted by the Center for Social Epidemiology and Population Health at the University of Michigan School of Public Health. The study is permanently closed to the enrollment of new subjects. All interventions and follow-up are complete In the second stage, the effect of neighborhood disorder on psychological distress is amplified by poor sleep quality. The results of our analyses are generally consistent with our theoretical model. We find that neighborhood disorder is associated with poorer sleep quality and greater psychological distress Nevertheless, many neighborhood level indicators are linked to important outcomes for people residing in neighborhoods of concentrated poverty, including crime and delinquency, education, psychological distress, and various health problems. HUD's Moving to Opportunity (MTO) demonstration found that those assigned vouchers restricted to low.

Some studies have found that neighborhood disadvantage can decrease depression rates in that these communities can sometimes harbor enhanced social relationships (Joongbaeck, 2010). Yet, the majority find that neighborhood disorder and neighborhood disadvantage increases depression rates (Joonbaeck, 2010) Perceived Neighborhood Disorder, Community Cohesion, and PTSD Although previous studies have established a link between neighborhood disadvantage, perceived neighborhood disorder, and psychopathology, the results thus far have been limited to depression, substance use, and, to a lesser extent, schizophrenia (Silver et al., 2002) It has been well‐established that neighborhood disorder and disadvantage are detrimental to mental health and psychological well‐being. There has been growing research interest in minority stress issues, however, less is known about how perceived neighborhood disorder matters for psychological well‐being among Latino adults in the United States that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with shorter telomere length for mothers of both races. This finding highlights a potential mechanism through which the unique spatially concentrated disadvantage faced by African Americans contributes to racial health disparities. We conclude that equalizing the health Many (but not all) studies have found relationships between neighborhood disadvantage and health even after considering individual characteristics—that is, the links do not appear to be due only to characteristics of the individuals themselves. For example, one study that compared heart disease among peopl

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disadvantage, affluence, available resources, and related constructs are important for understanding the socioeconomic community conditions that make populations more vulnerable to or protected from violence. Benson et al. (2004), measured neighborhood disadvantage as the percentage of residents who were unemployed, the percentage of singl Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis living in areas with high neighborhood-level disadvantage may have worse survival and lower odds of lung transplantation, researchers reported. from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the United Kingdom, which followed our target sample, 7,219 women, from birth and their mothers (from pregnancy). At age 21, 2,128 participants self-reported the frequency of experiencing physical, psychological, or sexual intimate partner violence since age 18. Participants' exposure to neighborhood-level deprivation and family. Methods Among 11 277 participants (57% women; mean age: 66.6 years) in the Health and Retirement Study (2012-2014), we investigated whether self-reported neighbourhood physical disorder (1-7 scale, mean=2.61, SD=1.45); presence of vandalism/graffiti, litter, deserted houses, feeling safe walking alone) was associated with mean hand grip strength using linear regression models with sampling. disorder, violence, and safety), neighborhood participation and social cohesion, and health promoting aspects of the built environment (e.g., areas for walking and exercise, accessibility of healthy foods, and presence and quality of recreational facilities

The impact of neighborhood disadvantage on health-related

This paper examines the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on racial disparities in ovarian cancer-specific survival. Despite treatment advances for ovarian cancer, survival remains shorter for African-American compared to White women. Neighborhood disadvantage is implicated in racial disparities across a variety of health outcomes and may contribute to racial disparities in ovarian cancer. Neighborhood disadvantage, disorder, and health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 2001; 42 : 258-276 View in Articl Introduction. Neighborhood disorder is generally thought of as one of the most pivotal concepts in criminology. While by no means representing a complete list, in criminology, scholarly work has related neighborhood disorder to policing styles and outcomes, crime, social control, social disorganization, neighborhood decay, foreclosure, and fear of crime

The Link Between Neighborhood Disadvantage and Health

Neighborhood disadvantage, distress and disorder affect an individual's physical and psychological health. Visible signs of social disorder include disputes among neighbors,. Neighborhood disorder may also influence physical health via behavioral mechanisms such as constraining physical activity within the neighborhood. Crime and fear of crime have been identified as potential link between neighborhood disorder and mental health and well-being (Lorenc et al., 2012); however, fear of crime may influence physical. Examination of these moderating effects provided support for the differential susceptibility model of Gene × Environment. The effect of Gene × Neighborhood Disadvantage on antisocial behavior was mediated by the effect of Gene × Neighborhood Social Ties, providing support for an expanded view of social disorganization theory Certain dimensions (i.e. Economic and Social disadvantage, Discrimination and Segregation, and Disorder and Incivilities) were more likely to use aggregate-level measures, as these dimensions are easier to assess using publically-available data (e.g. United States Census Bureau) or neighborhood observation methods (e.g. Systematic Social.

Neighborhood Disorder and Distress in Real Time: Evidence

Among other mental health concerns, given the link be-tween stress and psychosis (54 ), adverse neighborhood con-ditions are associated with an increased prevalence and severity of the extended psychosis phenotype (55). U.S. neighborhoods have evolved to systematically and generationally perpetuate disadvantage (41 ) for racially mi Neighborhood Disadvantage & Health Neighborhood poverty rates are associated with a range of poor health social disorder, and fewer health-promoting neighborhood structures, such as parks or grocery stores . US Department of Housing and Urban Development HOPE VI: Goal Individuals may use unhealthy coping mechanisms such as alcohol, tobacco, and unhealthy snack consumption. The purpose of this study was to assess how neighborhood disadvantage is associated with sales of alcohol, tobacco, and unhealthy snacks at stores of a discount variety store chain. Alcohol, tobacco, and unhealthy snack sales were measured monthly for 20 months, 2017-2018, in 16.

Risky Substance Use Environments and Addiction: A New

Introduction. Although the study of geographic and spatial variations in health has a long history, only recently have health researchers focused on investigating how spatial contexts, or more specifically neighborhood and community-level-factors, affect the health of residents. 1-3 The interest in neighborhoods and health has been driven by several interrelated trends within public health and. and neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and examines whether group membership is 75% had experienced a mental health disorder in adolescence and there were persistence and recurrence of disorders from adolescence into adulthood (Kim-Cohen et al., 2003). The negative current and long-term consequences of menta

Neighborhood Disadvantage, Disorder, and Health. Journal ofHealth and Social Behavior V42(3): 258-276. Ross, C., Reynolds, J., and Geis, K. (2000). The Contingent Meaning of Neighborhood Stability for Residents' Psychological Well-Being. Perceived neighborhood disorder Economic disadvantage 1.689 1.226 -.190 .196 -.231 .317 -.096 -.072 1. On the other hand overcrowding in urban cities could be a factor for stress, which might result in mental disorders. Overcrowding was considered factor for pro interpersonal relationship. When Ross(2000) compared advantaged and disadvantaged neighborhood, he found high level of depression in disadvantaged neighborhood We assessed neighborhood-level social conditions, including social cohesion, violence, and disorder, with self-reported, validated scales. RESULTS: Among African American women, each standard deviation increase in neighborhood disadvantage was associated with a 25% increased risk of CVD after covariate adjustment (hazard ratio = 1.25; 95%. disadvantages, (b) amplified advantages, (c) family compensatory effects, and (e) evaporation. Most study findings support amplified disadvantages where harmful impacts of ineffective parenting practices on youths' risk behaviors are magnified in the presence of higher neighborhood disorder. Lower levels of parents' inductive reasoning Objectives: To determine how demographic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics are associated with bedtimes among US kindergarteners. Design: Parents reported bedtimes of their children as well as personal, household, and residential characteristics via interviews in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) Class of 1998-1999 New York City neighborhoods that had higher levels of socioeconomic disadvantage experienced more COVID-19 infections and deaths, according to Mount Sinai scientists who created a neighborhood.