Congenital vascular malformation esophagus

Congenital anomalies of the esophagus comprise a diverse group of malformations. This chapter discusses embryology of the developing esophagus and esophageal anomalies secondary to its aberrant.. Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is a type of esophageal stenosis, and three histological subtypes (tracheobronchial remnants, fibromuscular thickening or fibromuscular stenosis, and membranous webbing or esophageal membrane) are described. Symptoms of CES usually appears with the introduction of the semisolid alimentation Congenital Malformations of the Digestive Tract Occasionally, babies can be born with defects along their digestive tract. Most commonly, these defects are undeveloped or incorrectly positioned organs that prevent the digestive system from functioning. While these conditions are rare, they're also serious and usually require surgery These disorders, found predominantly in small animals, can be classified as congenital megaesophagus, vascular ring entrapment anomalies, and achalasia. Congenital megaesophagus is thought to result from developmental anomalies in esophageal neuromuscular innervation that controls dilation and peristalsis Congenital anomalies of the esophagus and trachea are birth defects that occur before your baby is born. There are several kinds: Esophageal atresia- With esophageal atresia, your child's esophagus does not form properly, resulting in two segments that don't connect to each other.Since the esophagus is in two segments, liquid that a baby swallows cannot pass normally through the esophagus and.

Congenital Malformations of the Esophagus: Overview

Causes of Congenital Malformations M. Hassan Toufaily 1,2, Marie-Noel Westgate1,2, such as bilateral renal agenesis, esophageal atresia, and other malformation with an observed increased fre-quency among the sibs or offspring of affected individuals from the common isolated malformations. The designation of vascular disruption has been use Congenital Esophageal Stenosis • Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is a rare anomaly, resulting from incomplete separation of the respiratory tract from the primitive foregut at the 25th day of life (Serrao, Santos, Gaivao, Tavares & Ferreria, 2010) • It is characterized by intrinsic narrowing of the esophagus secondary to congenital malformation of the esophageal wall architecture (Lees & Dicken, 2016 Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is a common congenital anomaly of the respiratory tract, with an incidence of approximately 1 in 3500 to 1 in 4500 live births [ 1-4 ]. Classification — TEF typically occurs with esophageal atresia (EA). EA and TEF are classified according to their anatomic configuration ( figure 1) [ 5 ] A vascular ring is formed when vessels (or their atretic portions) completely encircle the trachea and esophagus, with the potential for airway and/or esophageal compression (1) As the lung buds elongate, lateral invagination of the mesoderm constitutes the tracheoesophageal septum, which separates the esophagus and trachea (, 2 -, 4). The separation of alimentary and respiratory structures is not always completed successfully. Defective or incomplete separation is one of the most frequent congenital anomalies (, 2)

Congenital anomalies of the esophagus occur in as many as 1 per 3000-5000 births, with esophageal atresia (EA) and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) being the most common types (and, therefore, the.. Vascular rings include defects in development of the aortic arch that leave the trachea and esophagus completely encircled by structures which are often fibrous, ligamentous remains of previously patent vessels. The most common types of vascular rings are the double aortic arch and right aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery Most are congenital defects such as abnormal communications between blood vessels (fistula), shunting of arterial blood directly into veins bypassing the CAPILLARIES (arteriovenous malformations), formation of large dilated blood blood-filled vessels (cavernous angioma), and swollen capillaries (capillary telangiectases)

Pathology - GIT at University of Queensland - StudyBlue

The ring formed by the anomalous vascular origin may compress the esophagus or the trachea. Similarly, a left aortic arch with an aberrant right subclavian artery passing posterior to the esophagus and right-sided ligamentum arteriosum may cause a partial vascular ring and result in dysphagia, although symptoms are uncommon Some congenital abnormalities of the esophagus seen in cats include megaesophagus, vascular ring anomalies, and cricopharyngeal achalasia (see Table: Congenital Esophageal Disorders of Cats). Signs of defects in the esophagus generally include regurgitation and problems with swallowing A vascular ring is a congenital anomaly in which the aortic arch and its branches completely or incompletely, encircle and compress the trachea or esophagus, or both [].It is a rare malformation, accounting for only about 1% of congenital cardiovascular anomalies

The incidence of associated congenital anomalies has been reported to be between 50% and 70% and is most common in infants with isolated esophageal atresia and least common in children with isolated TEF. 5 The most common associated anomalies, in descending order of frequency, include cardiac, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal. Vascular ring anomalies occur when a congenital abnormality of the heart's blood vessels result in the esophagus being compressed at the level of the base of the heart. This, in turn, prevents solid food from being able to pass properly past the compression as well as the dilatation of the esophagus in front of the compressed area Congenital malformations of the trachea include a variety of conditions that cause respiratory distress in neonates and infants. A number of anomalies are self-limiting while others are life-threatening and require immediate therapy. The prevalence of congenital airway malformations has been estimated to range between 0.2 and 1 in 10,000 live births OBJECTIVE: To report the incidence of congenital vascular anomalies in a cohort of patients with esophageal atresia (EA) and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) while describing the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and consequences, and to evaluate the diagnostic value of esophagram in diagnosing an aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA)

Congenital esophageal stenosis: a rare malformation of the

  1. Mass effect may lead to pain or discomfort related to size, dysphagia from esophageal compression, or respiratory symptoms due to airway obstruction. Furthermore, if the lining of a foregut malformation is comprised of gastric mucosa, this may lead to perforation and bleeding. 8 Rarely, these cases present as fetal hydrops due to vascular.
  2. ant) right arch behind and a smaller (hypoplastic) left aortic arch in front of the trachea/esophagus
  3. What causes congenital anomalies of the esophagus and trachea? In many cases, congenital anomalies of the esophagus and trachea are due to genetic defects that are present in the fetus before birth. In some cases these problems are passed along from parents to children, while in other situations the mutations occur randomly

Congenital Malformations of the Digestive Tract

  1. Compression of the trachea and esophagus by congenital vascular anomalies. DIVELEY WL, SYMBAS PN, SCOTT HW Jr, DANIEL RA Jr. PMID: 14028099 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] MeSH Terms. Aortic Diseases* Brachiocephalic Trunk* Carotid Artery Diseases* Esophageal Stenosis* Humans; Subclavian Artery* Trachea* Tracheal Stenosis* Vascular Diseases
  2. Vascular rings and slings refer to the congenital vascular encirclement of the esophagus and/or trachea by anomalous/aberrant vessels. Epidemiology Vascular rings are rare, occurring in <1% of patients 1. No gender or ethnic predispositions ha..
  3. Vascular rings are congenital anomalies of the aortic arch that result in compression of the tracheobronchial tree and/or esophagus, leading to respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms. They can be classified as either complete, when both the trachea and esophagus are fully encircled by a vascular anomaly, or incomplete without full.
  4. Esophageal atresia, with or without a tracheoesophageal fistula, is the most common congenital esophageal abnormality, occurring in approximately 1 in 3500-5000 births. Although 85% or fewer patients have proximal esophageal atresia with a distal tracheoesophageal fistula, other combinations of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula.

Congenital and Inherited Anomalies of the Esophagus

  1. Alternatively, vascular malformations are embryologic errors in vasculogenesis. This article focuses on the management of vascular malformations. The 3 primary vascular malformation subclassifications are lymphatic, venous, and arteriovenous. The burden of disease, diagnosis, and current management options are discussed in detail for each.
  2. These vascular malformations can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the location in the body: Venous malformation may cause pain where ever they are located. Venous and lymphatic malformations may cause a lump under the skin. There may be an overlying birthmark on the skin. Bleeding or lymph fluid leaking may occur from skin lesions
  3. A vascular malformation is an abnormal development of blood vessels. They might be found in the large arteries and veins, in smaller vessels called arterioles and venules, in microscopic capillaries, and/or in the lymphatic channels that carry lymphatic fluid and white blood cells outside of the arteries and veins
  4. antly affected
  5. • Gastroesophageal reflux (GER). The unilateral paralysis is usually idiopathic but may also be secondary to mediastinal lesions, such as tumors or vascular malformations or iatrogenic (caused by damage to the left recurrent laryngeal nerve during surgery in this area, such as heart surgery). It may also result from problems of the mechanical.
  6. Esophageal atresia with tracheal fistala. According to published figures approximately 70 per cent. of all congenital malformations of the oesophagus are of this type. Fischer (1926) gives the average duration of life as 2-7 days. In the exceptional case reported by Schmidgall (1915) life was prolonged for 28 days
  7. Abstract. Vascular malformations are congenital vessel malformations that include one or more venous, lymphatic, or arteriovenous defects. Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome occurs when there is a combination of venous and lymphatic malformations in the limbs; however, the definition is still controversial

Congenital Anomalies of the Esophagus and Trachea Boston

  1. Mass effect may lead to pain or discomfort related to size, dysphagia from esophageal compression, or respiratory symptoms due to airway obstruction. Furthermore, if the lining of a foregut malformation is comprised of gastric mucosa, this may lead to perforation and bleeding. 8 Rarely, these cases present as fetal hydrops due to vascular.
  2. A link between congenital vascular malformation (CVM) of the liver and trisomy 21 has been suggested. We reviewed all children with trisomy 21 referred for investigation to a specialist pediatric hepatobiliary unit (1985-2015). Forty-five children with trisomy 21 were identified; 7 (15%) had a defined CVMs (4 girls). All such infants were also diagnosed with a range of cardiac defects
  3. Abstract: Congenital pulmonary vascular anomalies are typically found in infancy or early childhood however, some may remain silent and present in adult patients. Anomalies may be separated into anatomic categories based on involvement of the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins or both with or without involvement of the lung parenchyma
  4. from esophageal compression, or respiratory symptoms due to airway obstruction. Furthermore, if the lining of a foregut malformation is comprised of gastric mucosa, this may lead to perforation and bleeding.8 Rarely, these cases present as fetal hydrops due to vascular compression. However, with th
  5. Some forms of congenital heart disease are associated with pulmonary vascular anomalies. For example, Tetralogy of Fallot may have subvalvular, valvular and supravalvular stenosis. In its most severe form, there is atresia of the pulmonary valve. This can result in ductal dependent pulmonary circulation in many cases
  6. Introduction . Until recently, congenital vascular malformations (CVM) suffered from a bad reputation among health professionals. Most doctors did not want to deal with CVM cases due to bad experiences in the management of these pathologies, mostly due to the lack of information and knowledge, which conditioned bad management and even worse results. 1 CVM's misconception has drastically.
  7. The Congenital Double Aortic Arch (DAA) which accounts for 46-76% of the complete rings is the most common vascular malformation in the congenital annulus [1, 2].Because of the persistence of the fourth aortic arches during embryonic development, both aortic arches are from the ascending aorta, bypassing the trachea and esophagus, inflowing into the descending aorta []

With vascular ring, some of the arches and vessels that should have changed into arteries or disappeared are still present when the baby is born. These arches form a ring of blood vessels, which encircles and presses down on the windpipe (trachea) and esophagus. Several different types of vascular ring exist In an arteriovenous malformation (AVM), blood passes quickly from the artery to vein, disrupting the normal blood flow and depriving the surrounding tissues of oxygen. An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is an abnormal tangle of blood vessels connecting arteries and veins, which disrupts normal blood flow and oxygen circulation Vascular Anomalies Congenital Vascular Malformations: Diagnosis and Management Glioma Classification, Diagnostics, and Extraluminal narrowing of the esophageal lumen can be caused by vascular ring anomalies, hiatal hernia and mediastinal wall are seen to be of pathophysiological importance. The diagnosis of. Congenital abnormalities of the aortic arch and its major branches result in the formation of vascular rings around the trachea and esophagus with varying degrees of compression . One of the most common anomalies is double aortic arch. In this type of vascular ring, the ascending aorta bifurcates and forms a right and left sided arch Abstract. Circumflex aorta is an unusual form of congenital arch malformation with a retroesophageal arch segment. Circumflex aorta crosses the midline behind the oesophagus and above the level of carina to become continuous with the proximal descending aorta on the opposite side to form a true vascular ring with the arterial ligament

Cardiovascular System | Basicmedical KeyCongenital Lung Disease

1. Introduction. Congenital vascular malformation (CVM) refers to malformed vessels resulting from arrested development during various stages of embryogenesis and presents in about 1.5% of the population (Belov, 1989; Malan & Pulionisi, 1965; Villavicencio et al, 2002).The CVMs may originate from multiple vascular systems, including arterial, venous, and lymphatic, and represent as either a. Since the mid-1940s, the phrase vascular ring has referred to congenital vascular anomalies of the aortic arch system that encircle and compress the esophagus and trachea causing various symptoms. The concept of vascular sling was described five decades later. The diagnosis of vascular ring or pulmonary artery sling should be suspected in. Some arteriovenous malformations require emergency treatment; others may never require treatment. Other vascular malformations may only need to be monitored. The abnormal formation or development of blood vessels is generally referred to as vascular malformation. Abnormal blood vessel structure is usually congenital, meaning it is present at birth

Vascular ring anomalies: case report and brief revie

Citation. Compression of Trachea and Esophagus by Congenital Vascular Anomalies. JAMA. 1963;184(5):253. doi:10.1001/jama.1963.03700180199146 Download citation file TEF and EA are two components of VACTERL association of congenital anomalies: V for vertebral or vascular anomalies, A for anal atresia, C for cardiac abnormalities, T for tracheoesophageal fistula, E for esophageal atresia, R for renal abnormalities, and L for limb anomalies. 2,3 VACTERL is an association rather than a syndrome. The brain, spinal cord, and skin are all derived from the embryonic ectoderm; this common derivation leads to a high association between central nervous system dysraphic malformations and abnormalities of the overlying skin. A myelomeningocele is an obvious open malformation, the identification of which is not usually difficult. However, the relationship between congenital spinal cord. This book is a superbly illustrated guide to the diagnosis and treatment of congenital vascular malformations (CVMs) that will enable the reader to avoid the serious pitfalls that may arise when caring for patients with this rare and complex group of lesions. After discussion of pathogenesis Vascular malformations are congenital lesions that can be composed of veins, arteries, lymphatic tissue, or a combination of these tissues. Each malformation type may require a different management strategy to mitigate the risk of bleeding, mass effect, or other symptom

Congenital thoracic vascular anomalies encompass the obstruction of the normal vessels, persistence of the aberrant vessels, and anomalous connection of the thoracic aorta and its branches, thoracic systemic veins, pulmonary arteries, and pulmonary veins. A vascular ring occurs when the anomalous vessel surrounds and compresses the trachea, esophagus, or both. Although echocardiography is a. et al. Congenital tracheoesophageal fistula without esophageal Announcement iPhone App A free application to browse and search the journal's content is now available for iPhone/iPad. The application provides Table of Contents of the latest issues, which are stored on the device for future offline browsing

NYP Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital provides the most comprehensive care available for babies with multiple and complex congenital anomalies. While other centers can handle a single system disease, our multidisciplinary team can address the most challenging patients all in one place, and provide the most advanced circulatory support for those with heart, lung and airway malformations. Double aortic arch is a common form of a group of defects that affect the development of the aorta in the womb. These defects cause an abnormal formation called a vascular ring (a circle of blood vessels). Normally, the aorta develops from one of several curved pieces of tissue (arches)

Congenital Anomalies of the Esophagus Thoracic Ke

The term vascular ring refers to the vascular structures that encircle and compress the trachea and esophagus, causing respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms. It can be further classified based on the location of the aortic arch. An arch sidedness is defined by the position of the aortic arch in relation to the trachea and bronchi Congenital malformations of esophagus Q39-. Codes. Q39 Congenital malformations of esophagus. Q39.0 Atresia of esophagus without fistula. Q39.1 Atresia of esophagus with tracheo-esophageal fistula. Q39.2 Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula without atresia. Q39.3 Congenital stenosis and stricture of esophagus. Q39.4 Esophageal web Q38 Other congenital malformations of tongue, mouth and pharynx. Q39 Congenital malformations of esophagus. Q40 Other congenital malformations of upper alimentary tract. Q41 Congenital absence, atresia and stenosis of small intestine. Q42 Congenital absence, atresia and stenosis of large intestine Valid for Submission. Q27.8 is a billable diagnosis code used to specify a medical diagnosis of other specified congenital malformations of peripheral vascular system. The code Q27.8 is valid during the fiscal year 2021 from October 01, 2020 through September 30, 2021 for the submission of HIPAA-covered transactions Congenital anomalies of the aortic arch include diverse subgroups of malformations that may be clinically silent or may present with severe respiratory or esophageal symptoms especially when associated with complete vascular rings. These anomalies may be isolated or may be associated with other congenital heart diseases

Vascular rings - Overview - Mayo Clini

Ideally a 64 slice scanner is used, but even a 4-slice scanner will suffice for studying vascular anomalies. The technique for these anomalies in the chest is the same as we use for pulmonary embolus detection. Thin collimation is used in combination with a fast table speed in order to get the highest resolution with the lowest radiation exposure Congenital varicose veins are due to disorders in the natural development of the venous system, and usually are part of a vascular malformation in the limb, present at birth. In addition to varicose veins, these individuals may also have an enlarged and longer limb and often have birthmarks (port-wine stains) like in Klippel Trenaunay Syndrome. Overview of Congenital Gastrointestinal Anomalies. Most congenital gastrointestinal (GI) anomalies result in some type of intestinal obstruction, frequently manifesting with feeding difficulties, distention, and emesis at birth or within 1 or 2 days. Some congenital GI malformations, such as malrotation, have a very good outcome, whereas others.

Congenital Vascular Malformation - Vascular Cure

Congenital tracheo-esophageal fistula is a congenital pathological communication between the trachea and esophagus. Epidemiology Tracheo-esophageal fistula and esophageal atresia have a combined incidence of approximately 1 in 3500 live birth.. 1 Introduction. Dextrocardia is a rare congenital heart disease that is the general term for the heart to move to the right in the chest. It has been reported that the incidence of dextrocardia is 0.1%, which accounts for 0.5% of the cases of adult congenital heart disease. Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is also called bilateral superior vena cava malformation In this review we cover the classification and endovascular management of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). We begin by viewing AVMs in relation to the broader class of congenital vascular malformations and subsequently go into more depth on the clinical and pathologic characteristics that define AVMs What causes congenital anomalies of the esophagus and trachea? As a fetus is growing and developing in its mother's uterus before birth, different organ systems are developing and maturing. The trachea and the esophagus begin developing as one single tube. At about four to eight weeks after conception, a wall forms between the fetus' esophagus. Vascular malformations are a type of birthmark or a growth, often present at birth and composed of blood vessels that can cause functional or cosmetic problems. Congenital or acquired blood vessel abnormalities can involve arteries, veins, capillaries, lymphatics, and combinations of these blood vessels


An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a congenital disorder (present from birth) characterized by a complex, tangled web of arteries and veins in which there is a short circuit and high pressure due to arterial blood flowing rapidly in the veins. An AVM may occur in the brain, brainstem or spinal cord Another reason for congenital megaesophagus is a vascular ring anomaly such as persistent right aortic arch. In this scenario, fetal blood vessels that should have disappeared at birth create a fibrous band that externally constricts the esophagus. Esophageal laxity/dilation and vascular ring anomalies are both believed to have a hereditary.

The care of children and adults with hemangiomas and vascular malformations requires the expertise of multiple subspecialties. The clinic for the treatment of vascular malformations at our institution has representatives from pediatric hematology-oncology, pediatric radiology, pediatric surgery, pediatric dermatology, pediatric otolaryngology, and orthopedic surgery 1.4 Congenital Anomalies - Definitions. Congenital anomalies comprise a wide range of abnormalities of body structure or function that are present at birth and are of prenatal origin. For efficiency and practicality, the focus is commonly on major structural anomalies. These are defined as structural changes that have significant medical.

Holoprosencephaly - Neuro MR Case Studies - CTisus CT Scanning

Approximately 50% of patients have associated congenital anomalies, of which the VATER/VACTERL association (consisting of a combination of v ertebral anomalies, a nal atresia, c ardiac defect, t racheo e sophageal fistula, r enal and l imb anomalies) is the most common. 43 Conditions associated with EA and TEF are listed in Table 8.9. Familial. These malformations are usually apparent at birth or by two years of age. Lymphatic malformations can affect any area of the body (except the brain), but most commonly affect the head and neck. When evident at birth (congenital), lymphatic malformations tend to be soft, spongy, non-tender masses

Aberrant subclavian artery - Wikipedi

Vascular anomalies is an all-inclusive term for vascular malformations, vascular tumors and other congenital vascular defects. The more commonly used term, Congenital Vascular Malformation (CVM), implies abnormally formed blood vessels that one is born with. However, in spite of its redundancy, CVM is a popular term and it will be used. Background: In about 18% of cases with conginental vascular malformations we find a perspective of an atypical truncular vein, located along the outside of the leg, frequently extended from the dorsal foot up to the bottom In contrast, congenital vascular malformations (CVMs) do not regress or enlarge; they grow at the same rate as the child and include arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs), capillary malformations (CMs), venous malformations (VMs), and lymphatic malformations (LMs) Congenital heart abnormalities are irregularities in the heart's structure that are present at birth as a result of faulty development of the heart. A baby's heart begins to develop a few weeks after conception. During development, structural defects can occur. These defects can involve the walls of the heart, the valves of the heart, and the.

Vascular Anomalies Associated with Esophageal Atresia and

treatment of these congenital abnormalities can be lifesaving. Surgical division of the vascular ring is indicated in any patient with symptoms of airway or esophageal compression. Keywords aortic arch anomalies; double aortic arch, vascular ring, congenital heart defect, congenital aortic defect, 22q11 chromosome deletion Definition and Embryolog Spinal vascular malformations, also known as spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), are the result of an abnormal connection between arteries and veins that occurs within the spinal canal or spinal dural covering. The term spinal vascular malformation includes several distinct types of vascular problems under one name

Coarctation of the Aorta - Pediatric Case Studies - CTisusWebpathologyVascular ring & Sling

Congenital anomalies of esophagus - SlideShar

Congenital vascular anomalies: current perspectives on diagnosis, classification, and management Francine Blei,1 Mark E Bittman2 1Vascular Anomalies Program, Lenox Hill Hospital, Northwell Health, 2Department of Radiology, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The term congenital vascular anomalies; encompasses those vascular lesions present at birth Double aortic arches account for roughly 50% of symptomatic vascular rings. 16 These vascular abnormalities occur when both the right and left fourth embryonic aortic arches persist, encircling both the trachea and esophagus. While both arches may be patent, a segment of one arch may also be hypoplastic or atretric Vascular anomalies occur when arteries, veins, capillaries or lymph vessels do not develop properly. Some can be disfiguring, while others can present health risks in children. Many vascular anomalies are congenital (present at birth), but some may develop later in a child's life. What are the different types of vascular anomalies

The code Q39.9 is VALID for claim submission. Code Classification: Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities (Q00-Q99) Other congenital malformations of the digestive system (Q38-Q45) Congenital malformations of esophagus (Q39) Q39.9 Congenital malformation of esophagus, unspecified. Code Version: 2020 ICD-10-CM MD,1* Massimo Pregarz, MD,2 Ivo A. Bergamo-Andreis, Attilio L. Boner, MD1 MD,2 and Key words: tracheoesophageal compression; aortic arch anomalies; vascular rings; stridor; dysphagia; congenital anomalies. INTRODUCTION Congenital anomalies of the aortic arch and pulmonary artery are an important cause of airway obstruction in infancy. They arise during embryonic development from the abnormal. A right-sided aortic arch is a rare congenital defect of the aorta. It is present in 0.05% to 0.1% of radiology series and in 0.04%-0.1% of autopsy series [1, 2].Several classifications of these anomalies have been proposed based on the arrangement of the arch vessels, relationships with the esophagus, or the presence of congenital heart anomalies zyx Diagnosis and Management of Congenital Vascular Rings: A 22-Year Experience Karen Chun, MD, Paul M. Colombani, MD, David L. Dudgeon, MD, and zyxwvuts J. Alex Haller, Jr, MD Division of Pediatric Surgery, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland Between 1968 and 1990, we operatively treated 39 pa- tients (19 boys, 20 girls) with congenital aortic arch to. Vascular anomalies are a heterogeneous group of congenital blood vessel disorders more typically referred to as birthmarks. Subcategorized into vascular tumors and malformations, each anomaly is characterized by specific morphology, pathophysiology, clinical behavior, and management approach. Hemangiomas are the most common vascular tumor