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Meningococcal meningitis SlideShare

Pathogenicity Meningococcal meningitis, as a spread from nasopharynx blood stream meninges in susceptible hosts. Direct spread to meninges Rash Adrenal hemorrhage (Waterhouse- Friderchsen syndrome) Dr.T.V.Rao MD 25 26. Clinical manifestations Dr.T.V.Rao MD Meningococcal meningitis 26 27 Meningococcal meningitis, a bacterial form of meningitis, is a serious infection of the meninges that affects the brain membrane. It can cause severe brain damage and is fatal in 50% of cases if untreated. Twelve types of N. meningitides, called serogroups, have been identified, six of which (A, B, C, W, X and Y) can cause disease and epidemics

Meningitis Meningococcal Meningitis - SlideShar

Meningitis Created By: VSU Student Health Center Nursing Staff What is Meningitis? Infection of the fluid in the spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain Viral or Bacterial Etiology is important because of the seriousness of the illness and the treatment needed Viral Meningitis Usually clears up in a week or two with no specific treatment Common; rarely serious infection of fluid in. Meningococcal Disease. Caused by a bacterium called . Neisseria . meningitidis. The bacteria can result in meningitis, blood stream infection or other infections. Meningitis: Inflammation around the brain or spinal cord. Very serious, can be deadly. Death can occur in a few hours. Can also result in brain damage, hearing loss, or learning. Epidemics of meningococcal disease are recurrent in that part of sub-Saharan Africa known as the meningitis belt, which extends from Senegal in the west to Ethiopia in the east (31). Epidemics in the meningitis belt usually occur during the dry season (i.e., from December to June); thus, vaccination is recommended for travelers visiting this. Meningococcal meningitis may be associated with kidney and adrenal gland failure and shock. Individuals with encephalitis often show mild flu-like symptoms. In more severe cases, people may experience problems with speech or hearing, double vision, hallucinations, personality changes, and loss of consciousness Meningitis is an inflammation (swelling) of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. A bacterial or viral infection of the fluid surrounding the brain and spinal cord usually causes the swelling. However, injuries, cancer, certain drugs, and other types of infections also can cause meningitis

Meningococcal meningitis - WH

Meningococcal conjugate or MenACWY vaccines (Menactra ® and Menveo ®) Serogroup B meningococcal or MenB vaccines (Bexsero ® and Trumenba ®) All 11 to 12 year olds should get a meningococcal conjugate vaccine, with a booster dose at 16 years old. Teens and young adults (16 through 23 year olds) also may get a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine Pathophysiology. Meningitis is a disease process where the protective layers that cover the brain and spinal cord become inflamed. Meningitis can be infectious or it can be caused by injury, cancer, and other noninfectious causes. Infectious meningitis can be caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. It can also be caused by parasites. meningitis Avoid piperacillin-tazobactam due to poor CNS penetration Use adjusted body weight for obese patients to calculate acyclovir dose: Adjusted body weight = 0.4(Actual Weight - Ideal Weight) + Ideal Weight Adjust vancomycin, meropenem, acyclovir, TMP-SMX and aztreonam in patients with renal dysfunction CT prior to lumba Cases of Meningococcal Meningitis, by Age Group, 1981-1996, Niamey, Niger* *Campagne et al. Bull World Health Organ 1999;77(6):499-508. Clinically Significant Meningococcal Serogroups* Serogroup Characteristics A • Leading cause of epidemic meningitis worldwid Cryptococcal meningitis is a fungal infection and inflammation of the membranes covering your spinal cord and brain. Lean more

Neisseria meningitidis is one of the leading causes of bacterial meningitis globally and can also cause sepsis, pneumonia, and other manifestations. In countries with high endemic rates, the disease burden places an immense strain on the public health system. The worldwide epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) varies markedly by region and over time The meningococcal vaccine is available as a quadravalent vaccine (serotypes A, C, Y, and W-135) and should be administered to anyone with functional asplenia, terminal complement deficiencies, those traveling to endemic areas of meningococcal meningitis, and any college freshman requesting the vaccine who will be living in college dormitories (15) Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) is defined as adrenal gland failure due to bleeding into the adrenal glands, commonly caused by severe bacterial infection. Typically, it is caused by Neisseria meningitidis.. The bacterial infection leads to massive bleeding into one or (usually) both adrenal glands. It is characterized by overwhelming bacterial infection meningococcemia leading to.

Control and Prevention of Meningococcal Disease

  1. Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges, the lining surrounding the brain and the spinal cord. Public health concerns mainly focus on the bacteria Neisseria meningitidis, as it can cause large-scale epidemics.This course provides a general introduction to Meningitis and is intended for incident managers and personnel working for the United Nations, international organizations and NGOs
  2. Viruses: Infections from herpes, enteroviruses, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), West Nile and tick-borne viruses lead to viral encephalitis. This is the most common cause. Problem with the immune system: The immune system can mistakenly attack the brain, causing autoimmune encephalitis. Bacteria and parasites: On rare occasions, these germs.
  3. In the largest meningococcal epidemic outbreak recorded in 1996-1997 in Africa, an estimated 300,000 cases and 30,000 deaths occurred in the meningitis belt due to serogroup A infection. Serogroup A was the cause of most meningococcal disease in the first part of the twentieth century in developed countries, but is now rare in the US and Europe
  4. Epidemics of meningococcal meningitis: Every year, bacterial meningitis epidemics affect more than 400 million people living in the 26 countries of the extended African meningitis belt (from Senegal to Ethiopia). In this area over 900 000 cases were reported in the last 20 years (1995-2014). Of these cases, 10% resulted in deaths, with another 10-20% developing neurological sequelae
  5. Meningitis. Meningitis is a disease caused by the inflammation of thin lining covering the brain and spinal cord known as meninges. The infection of the fluids surrounding the brain and spinal cord leads to inflammation of meninges. The severity of illness and treatment of meningitis differ depending on the cause
  6. Meningococcal disease encompasses meningococcal septicaemia (25% of cases), meningococcal meningitis (15% of cases) or a combination of the two (60% of cases). Up to 95% of meningitis in the UK is aseptic, where there is no growth on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture, usually with a viral aetiology (e.g. enteroviruses)

Meningitis and Encephalitis Fact Sheet National

Tuberculous Meningitis (TBM) is a form of meningitis characterized by inflammation of the membranes (meninges) around the brain or spinal cord and caused by a specific bacterium known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In TBM, the disorder develops gradually. Treatment with antibiotics and other drugs is usually effective against the infection Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord as a result of either bacteria, viral or fungal infection.Bacterial infections may be caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcal meningitis), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcal meningitis). Those at greatest risk for this disease are infants between 6 and 12 months of age. Riesenauswahl an Markenqualität. Folge Deiner Leidenschaft bei eBay! Über 80% neue Produkte zum Festpreis; Das ist das neue eBay. Finde ‪Meningitis‬ Meningococcal MeningitisThe most important pathogen for meningitis is Neisseria meningitidesbecause of its potential to cause epidemics O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários

Meningitis CD

4 Meningococcal Meningitis 1. Department of Infectious Diseases ( Shi Hong ) MENINGOCOCCAL MENINGITIS 2. Meningococcal meningitis Meningococcal meningitis Morbidity mortality rate Morbidity mortality early diagnosis modern therapy supportive measure HIGH low 3 meningococcal meningitis. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) can also cause meningitis. In the past, Hib was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis. There is a vaccine that stops infants and young children from getting this kind of meningitis. Certain people who have direct contact with the saliva of a person wit Meningitis is an infection of the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis can be caused by a bacterial, fungal or viral infection. Meningitis can be acute, with a quick onset of symptoms, it can be chronic, lasting a month or more, or it can be mild or aseptic Meningitis is an inflammatory process involving the meninges. The differential diagnosis is broad ().Aseptic meningitis is the most common form. The annual incidence is unknown because of. Symptoms of meningitis, septicaemia and meningococcal disease include: a high temperature. cold hands and feet. vomiting. confusion. breathing quickly. muscle and joint pain. pale, mottled or blotchy skin. spots or a rash

Meningococcal Menactra Meningococcal Conjugate vaccine (Serogroups A, C, Y, W-135) Meningococcal (MCV4P) 9 mos-55 yr 0.5 ml IM Sanofi Pasteur - PMC (AKA: Aventis) NDC: 49281-0589-05 90734 114 Menveo Meningococcal Conjugate vaccine (Serogroups A, C, Y, W-135) Meningococcal (MCV4O) 2-55 yr 0.5 ml IM Novarti Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. The most common symptoms are fever, headache, and neck stiffness. Other symptoms include confusion or altered consciousness, vomiting, and an inability to tolerate light or loud noises. Young children often exhibit only nonspecific symptoms, such as.

Meningococcal Vaccination CD

Bacterial meningitis is the most severe form of meningitis. 3. Answer: D. All of the above changes. D: All of the options listed above are caused by bacterial meningitis. A: Cerebral edema is caused by bacterial meningitis. B: Increased permeability of the blood brain barrier ia caused by meningitis. C: Raised intracranial pressure is caused by bacterial meningitis Meningitis affects the membranes around the brain and spinal cord. It is the most dangerous type of meningitis and can be fatal. Swift treatment with antibiotics can prevent death or permanent.

Cryptococcal meningitis is a relatively rare illness, and most healthy people are not at risk of developing cryptococcal meningitis. It is most common in people who have a weakened immune system The future of vaccines . Did you know that scientists are still working to create new types of vaccines? Here are 2 exciting examples: DNA vaccines are easy and inexpensive to make—and they produce strong, long-term immunity.; Recombinant vector vaccines (platform-based vaccines) act like a natural infection, so they're especially good at teaching the immune system how to fight germs

Pathophysiology Meningiti

Cryptococcal Meningitis: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosi

Meningitis is an infection of the protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord (meninges). It can affect anyone, but is most common in babies, young children, teenagers and young adults. Meningitis can be very serious if not treated quickly. It can cause life-threatening blood poisoning (septicaemia) and result in permanent. Vaksin MMR, untuk melindungi pasien dari kondisi yang memicu meningitis, seperti gondongan, campak, dan rubella. Vaksin ACWY, untuk memberikan perlindungan pada pasien terhadap bakteri meningococcal grup A, C, W, dan Y. Vaksin meningitis B, untuk melindungi pasien dari bakteri meningococcal tipe B. Pemberian vaksin harus disesuaikan dengan umur.

Meningococci are a type of bacteria that cause serious infections. The most common infection is meningitis, which is an inflammation of the thin tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.Meningococci can also cause other problems, including a serious bloodstream infection called sepsis.. Meningococcal infections can spread from person to person AIMS To examine a number of simple clinical features and investigations in children with a non-blanching rash to see which predict meningococcal infection. METHODS A total of 233 infants and children up to 15 years of age presenting with a non-blanching rash were studied over a period of 12 months. Clinical features and laboratory investigations were recorded at presentation Meningitis is the medical term for inflammation of the tissues (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord. The inflammation is most commonly caused by a virus or a bacterium, which travels from an infection in another part of the body through the bloodstream to the meninges. The treatment and long-term outlook of meningitis differ. Drugs used to treat Meningitis. The following list of medications are in some way related to, or used in the treatment of this condition. Select drug class All drug classes amebicides (4) carbapenems (4) miscellaneous antibiotics (7) sulfonamides (7) aminoglycosides (7) second generation cephalosporins (3) third generation cephalosporins (6. Summary. Meningitis is a serious infection of the meninges in the brain or spinal cord that is most commonly viral or bacterial in origin, although fungal, parasitic, and noninfectious causes are also possible. Enteroviruses and herpes simplex virus are the leading causes of viral meningitis, while Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are the pathogens most commonly responsible.

Physical examination of bacterial meningitis may vary in adults and in infants. Patient may present with the classic triad of illness such as fever, neck stiffness and altered mental status. This classic triad is an emergency situation and may prompt management stratgey. Complications of bacterial meningitis may change the clinical presentation. Bacterial meningitis is a serious inflammation of the meninges caused by various bacteria. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) are the predominant causative pathogens in adults.. This topic covers bacterial meningitis acquired by adults in the community; meningitis may also be associated with invasive procedures or head trauma, but.

Meningitis Lab Manual: Methods for Diagnosis CD

  1. Meningitis is an inflammation of the membranes around the spinal cord or brain. Bacterial meningitis is caused by bacterial and viral meningitis is caused by a virus. Meningitis symptoms in children include vomiting, rash, stiff neck, fever, seizure, nausea, increased sensitivity to light, and altered mental status. Treatment may include a breathing tube, a heart and breathing monitor, IV.
  2. IID-8 Increase the percentage of children aged 19 to 35 months who receive the recommended doses of DTaP, polio, MMR, Hib, hepatitis B, varicella and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) LHI. Leading Health Indicators are a subset of Healthy People 2020 objectives selected to communicate high-priority health issues
  3. ister amphotericin B (0.7-1 mg/kg/day IV) for at least 2 weeks, with or.
  4. In the United States, there are roughly 300 to 400 cases of neonatal meningitis for every 100,000 live births. A rare type of meningitis, this often life-threatening condition affects newborns and.
  5. Acute bacterial meningitis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Children <2 years of age are particularly susceptible to infection with encapsulated bacteria due to their immature response to polysaccharide antigens. Conjugate vaccines, which induce T cell memory, ca
  6. Meningococcal immunizations: All children are immunized against Neisseria meningitidis but children with sickle cell disease receive these immunizations earlier. There are two ways to receive the immunization: as part of routine infant vaccination (four doses at 2, 4, 6, and 12 -15 months of age), or after 7 months of age (two doses)

Meningitis Student Health and Counseling Service

See also. Sepsis - assessment and management Acute meningococcal disease Child abuse. Key points. The majority of children with petechiae do not have a serious bacterial infection or meningococcal disease, and often will not have a specific cause identified ; Seriously unwell children with petechiae/purpura require urgent managemen Meningitis. This is infection of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. Meningococcemia. This is infection of the bloodstream. Meningococcal infections are not common, but they can be fatal. They occur most often in late winter and early spring. Children are more often affected, but the illnesses also occur in teens and adults Meningitis is usually caused by viruses or bacteria transmitted through droplets of respiratory or throat secretions. Meningitis has a high potential to cause epidemics. The infection, if untreated, results in an inflammation of the meninges, the thin lining that surrounds the brain and the spinal cord.. This inflammation can produce a wide range of symptoms, including fever, headache, or. Meningitis is an infection of the membranes (meninges) that protect the spinal cord and brain. When the membranes become infected, they swell and press on the spinal cord or brain. This can cause life-threatening problems. Meningitis symptoms strike suddenly and worsen quickly For important infections that may require prompt Public Health intervention, e.g. Meningococcal meningitis and septicaemia. Meningitis. Typhoid Fever. Legionnaires' disease. Anthrax. The CCDC should be contacted on telephone 0344 225 4524 followed by option 1 then 2 (9am-5pm) or fax 0115 8419199. Out of hours contact the on-call public health.

Meningococcal vaccination needed in india july 2016

Viral meningitis is an infection of the membranes (linings) that cover the brain and spinal cord. A variety of viruses can cause meningitis, including those that cause gastroenteritis, measles, mumps, chicken pox and herpes. Viral meningitis is rarely serious, although symptoms may be severe Normocellular bacterial meningitis is rarely observed in adult patients. We here report two cases of adult patients with pneumococcal meningitis with a normal cerebrospinal fluid leukocyte count and review eight other cases in the literature. Case 1 was a 34-year-old Japanese woman with a history of splenectomy who presented with pyrexia, nausea, headache, and loss of hearing in her right ear Meningitis is most often caused by a bacterial or viral infection that moves into the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). CSF is the fluid that protects and cushions the brain and spinal cord. A fungus or parasite may also cause meningitis. This is more common only in children with a weak immune system. Meningitis caused by a virus is more common and.

Meningococcal Infections in Childre

  1. Presently, it is the most common bacterial cause of meningitis, accounting for 47% of cases. Most individuals who are colonised with pneumococcus carry only a single serotype at any given time. The duration of colonisation varies depending on bacterial characteristics such as serotype and host characteristics
  2. Vaccines do a great job of keeping people from getting serious diseases. In the United States, the rates for most vaccine-preventable diseases are at record or near-record lows. But these diseases still exist — even if they are rare in the United States, they may be common in countries that are just a plane ride away. As long as these diseases are around, people will continue to get sick
  3. Fungal meningitis is rare and usually the result of spread of a fungus through blood to the spinal cord. Although anyone can get fungal meningitis, people with weakened immune systems, like those with HIV infection or cancer, are at higher risk.. The most common cause of fungal meningitis for people with weakened immune systems is Cryptococcus.This disease is one of the most common causes of.
  4. Bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is an infection of the surface of the meninges. It can affect anyone, but is most common in babies, children, teenagers and young adults. Meningococcal disease and bacterial meningitis continue to have high mortality rates; around 1 in every 10 people affected dies
  5. Meningococcal meningitis affects people of all ages and tends to occur in epidemics, especially among those who live in crowded conditions. It is hyperendemic in Africa just south of the Sahara, from Senegal and Guinea east to Eritrea and Ethiopia, and epidemics occur periodically there during the dry season
  6. 4 Meningococcal Meningitis 1. Department of Infectious Diseases ( Shi Hong ) MENINGOCOCCAL MENINGITIS 2. Meningococcal meningitis Meningococcal meningitis Morbidity mortality rate Morbidity mortality early diagnosis modern therapy supportive measure HIGH lo

Meningitis & Encephalitis - EMCrit Projec

In the first six months of 2019, the number of notified meningococcal serogroup W (MenW) disease cases decreased in almost all age groups, after a continuous increase since 2015. In 2018, there was also a low number of cases of other diseases under the National Immunisation Programme due to the high vaccination coverage in the past decennia meningococcal disease that can cause meningitis, septacaemia (blood poisoning) or both, infection with other bacteria (uncommon), trauma. The doctor may need to do some tests to try and find out the cause of the rash: This will determine the right treatment for your child. What tests may my child need meningococcal disease: IV Ceftriaxone for 7 days unless contraindicated BM3 (see bacterial meningitis algorithm for antibiotics against other pathogens) MD11 Urgently notify public health of any suspected case of meningitis or meningococcal disease Prophylaxis of household contacts of MD (goo.gl/1NTbck Symptoms. Signs and symptoms of a meningioma typically begin gradually and may be very subtle at first. Depending on where in the brain or, rarely, spine the tumor is situated, signs and symptoms may include: Changes in vision, such as seeing double or blurriness. Headaches, especially those that are worse in the morning

Symptoms of meningococcal disease include fever, headache and stiff neck in meningitis cases, and sepsis and rash in meningococcemia. MERS-CoV - Currently, all cases are associated with either direct travel to the Arabian peninsula, or contact with a returned traveler from the Arabian peninsula Immunisation is a way of preventing infectious diseases. Vaccinations are offered to babies, children and adults to protect against serious and preventable diseases Meningitis \(bacterial\) and meningococcal septicaemia in children and young people. NICE quality standard 19. quality standards topic library. Quality statement 1: Intrapartum antibiotics . Quality statement . Pregnant women whose babies are at risk of early-onset neonatal infection are offere Brain damage is an injury that causes the destruction or deterioration of brain cells.. In the U.S., every year, about 2.6 million people have some type of brain injury -- whether as a result of.

Meningococcal meningitis (MM) is a serious form of bacterial infection resulting in inflammation of meninges. Meningococcal Meningitis: Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis. • Shock, DIC and purpura [slideshare.net] Musculoskeletal Neck Pain. The signs and symptoms of meningitis include. Meningitis is an inflammation of the thin membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord. It is most often caused by a bacterial or viral infection that moves into the cerebral spinal fluid. A fungus or parasite may also cause meningitis. Meningitis caused by a virus is more common and usually less severe The key ingredient in all vaccines is one or more active ingredients (see below). Apart from this, the main ingredient in vaccines is water. Most injected vaccines contain 0.5 millilitres of liquid, in other words a few drops. All other ingredients weigh a few milligrams (thousandths of a gram) or even less Prevention of secondary case of meningococcal meningitis. By mouth. For Child 1 month-4 years. 30 mg/kg (max. per dose 125 mg) for 1 dose. For Child 5-11 years. 250 mg for 1 dose. For Child 12-17 years. 500 mg for 1 dose. For Adult. 500 mg for 1 dose

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Management of Bacterial Meningitis and Meningococcal Disease Policy (V9) 7 6 Bacterial Meningitis And Meningococcal Disease 6.1 When a case occurs: 6.1.1 Infection Control Ensure that the local policy for isolation nursing is implemented. The patient should be admitted to a negative pressure isolation room where availabl Infectious disease - Infectious disease - Immune response to infection: When a pathogenic (disease-causing) microorganism invades the body for the first time, the clinical (observable) response may range from nothing at all, through various degrees of nonspecific reactions, to specific infectious disease. Immunologically, however, there is always a response, the purpose of which is defense Complement deficiency. Complement deficiency is a form of primary immunodeficiency disorder. Deficiency in any component of the complement system can lead to immunocompromise and overwhelming infection and sepsis. Deficiency can be inherited or acquired and complete or partial. Acquired deficiency can be caused by infection